Business Leadership

Not only we influenced and affected by it, we are also called upon to exercise it. Whether we are involved in leading government or business, guiding young minds or leading a family, everyone has a leadership role to play. Morse and Buss (2007) defines leadership as a process of influence where a person or group influences others to work towards a common goal. Good leaders inspire others to do their best. They help others to work together to accomplish their goals. Leadership is also about being a good role model. According to Stashes and Burke (2006) leadership is about coping with change.

Leaders set up direction by developing a vision of the future, aligning others by communication he vision and inspiring their people to overcome problems. According to McKinney (2000), American newspaper commentator Walter Lifespan defined leaders as “the custodians of a nation’s ideals, the beliefs it cherishes, of its permanent hopes, of the faith which makes a nation out of a mere aggregation of individuals. ” In other words, leaders have the ability to affect human behavior to accomplish a mission or to achieve a specific goal. Leadership is subjected to close research from the theoretical and practical viewpoints.

In the early days, leadership theories mainly focused on the characteristics or behaviors of successful leaders. Today, leadership theories have expanded to consider the role of the followers and contextual natural of leadership. Adair (2003, page 7-38) described a leader as a person (with leadership qualities) who has the appropriate knowledge and skill to lead a group to achieve their goals and objectives willingly. However, personality and character cannot be left out of the leadership. Their personal qualities, their reaction to the demands of the situation, or a combination of these, attract followers to their leadership style.

An individual who is appointed to a leadership position (manager), must assess adequate personal attitude and skills to lead the team. They need to continuously improve their attitude, skills and knowledge to achieve higher levels of excellence. According to Coated (2007, p. 304) leaders and managers need to see beyond the next quarterly returns or the immediate production deadline. They need to look at the big pictures, peep into the future, and set the organization’s mission and vision firmly in place. An effective leader is a good planner, instructor and organizer.

Leader needs to be good at evaluating performance, judging people (customers or crews) and to be able to foresee the outcome of an action (or inaction). The visionary leader leads the team to stay focused on their targets and objectives. Leaders can push a team to achieve things they didn’t know were possible. Visionary leadership is an indispensable guide leaders at all levels, from top executives to head of divisions and departments, from large corporations to small business, from manufacturing and service organizations to government and non-profit institutions (Bass, 1995).

Leadership style models help to achieve effective leaders which include the involvement of the employees in discussions with their supervisors from time to mime and decision making. The leadership style will have great impact on others. Effective leaders provide motivation, inspiration and are well connected with their team members. Effective leadership style will bring proper accomplishment of goals and objectives. It also helps to understand human behavior in wider perspective and helps in developing positive self-awareness. They providing mentors and guidance, and rallying the team to achieve bigger and better things.

Motivation is another important aspect of good leadership (Curry, 1998). Motivation can improve morale and productivity, resulting in overall improvement in efficiency and team productivity. Every organization needs leaders at every level. Leadership in business is important because it is about building teams and communicating so that everyone works to crate synergy. This is a key ingredient to successful businesses and championship teams. Although thousands of research studies have been conducted to prove which leadership style is best applicable in the organization, but still there are no conclusions.

The “best” leadership seems to occur when the leaders’ style matches to the actual situation. Each of the leadership styles can be effective in the right situation. The most effective leadership styles depend on the interaction among people, characteristics of the situation, and the leader (manager) personality. 4. The analysis of Steve Jobs personality and leadership with leadership theories Steve Jobs, Apple’s CEO and the man who almost single handed-lye made Apple one of the key players in advance technologies.

I disagree that Steve Jobs’ leadership style does not match the theories of leadership. Although he had his fair share of unconventional ways, Steve did indeed practice numerous leadership styles that are aligned to theories presented in textbooks and equines journals. In fact, there is a general consensus that Steve Jobs is a willful and driven leader and he is the leader of one of the most outstanding companies in the history of business. Visionary and Transformational Leadership Steve Jobs once said “l want to put a ding in the universe. “-Steve Jobs (Kenney, 2011. . 1 50). This statement gives us some insight into his leadership characteristics and the focus on ideation that led Apple to where it is today under his leadership. Indeed, Steve was driven by passion and a powerful vision. Stave’s visionary leadership articulate his people with great inspiration, hush transforming it in same way. The strength of Stave’s vision and passion, coupled with innovation culture that was already in place made the generation of group passion, and eventually the task, and ultimately the sale, much easier (Sander, 2012 p. 2). He was able to combine his great ideas with his strong perception of consumer desires, marketing strategy and management skills. Steve had planned for the products; he provided the visions, the tools and the solid working environment for his people. He transmitted energy to his people, giving them a new sense of confidence in achieving the vision. He was a follower f Zen (Sander, 2012), honed by Ken’s training and ideology. Focus was ingrained in Stave’s personality.

A leader needs to love what he or she does (Graves, 2011 Steve focuses his attention on his products, believes in his ideas and never gives in to failure. These are perhaps the keys to his success as a transformational leader. Cherry (2012) defined transformational leadership as a type of leadership style that leaders to positive changes in those who follow. Transformational leaders are generally energetic, enthusiastic, visionary and passionate. Not only are these leaders concerned and involved in the process; they are also focused n helping every member of the group succeed.

Steve Jobs has created the whole culture within his company, a culture that pursues innovation, devotion to creating great “killer” products, motivation and promotion of self-interest among his people, marketing vision and concentration on quality. Transformational leaders encourages promotes values, belief, and sense of responsibilities (Bass & Ringing, 2006). Steve Jobs has all the necessary attributes to be considered on. In 1997, Steve returned to Apple when the company was in the crisis. He took the reins and made sweeping changes, re-structuring and resizing the organization.

He reviewed the situation and concluded that a small team of talents is more useful and productive than crowds of less talented people. From there, he delegated and gave full support to the team. One of the recurring themes was Jobs’ “reality distortion field,” his ability to convince those around him that his version of reality was true, his ability to impose his will upon others in a way that made the seemingly impossible become possible. Jobs felt that if he could make Apple’s products attractive, stylish and appealing, people would ultimately flock to them.

Jobs was convinces that he knew the best, eschewing arrest research in lieu of the belief that consumers would want what he tells them to want, insisting on a closed system of end -to-end control by Apple because he didn’t want outsiders screwing up what he was creating. “The more you saw him as having mystique, the more it went hand in hand with him being a visionary. ” (Dailey, 2011) Steve Jobs’ carefully constructed web secrecy, peppered with some hints of vulnerability and accessibility-he was famous for answering customer emails-only added to the looming legend that grew with each Apple innovation.

Jobs had received numbers of honors and recognition for his influence in the mobile technology and music industries. He has widely been referred as visionary leader. Charismatic Leadership Steve Jobs also classified as charismatic and visionary leader. Charismatic leadership results when a leader uses the force of personal abilities and talents to create profound and extraordinary effect on followers (Nelson, 2012). Many people who worked for Jobs experienced burnout and describes him as an intimidators, but on hindsight they appreciate and relish the experience.

Research shows that people who work for the intimidator (Steve Jobs) were often mind the experience “profoundly educational, even transformational. ” (Kenney, 2011 p. 1 72) Steve often insists on things that are seemingly impossible. He believes that eventually even the thorniest problem is solvable. He works people hard and heaps on stress. But, the end result is usually a great piece of work. He believes in his decisions for the company; and his self-confidence led him to success. True leaders are always looking over the horizon for the next opportunity.

It is this quest that keeps them going and sometimes they find their true mission along the way, as Steve did (Elliot & Simon, 2011). Innovative Leadership Sander (2012) defined innovation in a way that made sense to Steve Jobs “Innovation is an invention with customer and a marketable vision in mind” Innovation is to introduce something new. A combination of two processes: generating new ideas and implementation the new idea. Innovation calls for good leadership and management at all levels of the organization.

Good leaders will stimulate their team to be more ‘hands on’ and to have greater interest in their work, which in turn, leads to the generation of more great ideas (Adair and Thomas, 2004). An innovative leader faces two key challenges. Firstly, to strike the right balance between running the current business and growing the new business. Secondly, in sensing untapped market needs and choosing a promising area to purse (Decamps, 2008). In Stave’s innovation model has six important components: Customer, Vision, Culture, Product, Message and Brand (Sander, 2012).

Steve Jobs inspired his people, he is deeply involved at almost every level with almost every critical projects. He injects energy and guides his people towards developing a solution. His deep involvement makes them feel important and as a result, eager to beat expectation. There’s not an ounce of democracy at Apple. That’s what makes it a paragon of such traditional corporate values as top-down leadership, sharply hierarchical organization and centralized control. It’s Stave’s company ? pursuing his vision, at his pace, with his team, making his products.

Without Steve Jobs’ authoritarian leadership, Apple would be just another Silicon Valley outfit… “(Chuddar, 2012). When Steve return to Apple, he was described as practicing tyrannical leadership style ? fire and forced at will to ensure that his employees delivered products that consumers lusted for, n an ever-evolving digital world. It certainly worked. Steve is the follower of Zen. Muslin (2001) researched that “His Zen awareness was not accompanied by an excess of calm, peace of mind or interpersonal mellowness,” and “He could stun an unsuspecting victim with an emotional towel-snap, perfectly aimed. As an autocratic leader, Steve Jobs is forceful and demands nothing less than total control. He makes the decisions, announces them and expecting others to carry them out without a question. “One of the things that Mr. Jobs did, which was very unlike anyone else, was he did it his way,” (Dailey, 2011). Steve Jobs choose o lead his team from the front, spearheading the innovation and constantly renewed products of the company. The autocratic nature of his leadership also bears some transactional traits, such as using verbal lashings at employees (Line, 2011).

In meetings, Jobs was infamous for creating an atmosphere of fear. He had been described by some as being harsh, petulant and even boorish at times. Although it was not easy working for Jobs, those who can weather it tend to be loyal (Kenney, 2011. P. 108). Steve gained respect from both inside and outside the company by maintaining his focus despite his fame and fortune. He was certainly one of the most influential business leaders of his time. “There’s not an ounce of democracy at Apple.

That’s what makes it a paragon of such traditional corporate values as top-down leadership, sharply hierarchical organization and centralized control. It’s Stave’s company ? pursuing his vision, at his pace, with his team, making his products. Without Steve Jobs’ authoritarian leadership, Apple would be just another Silicon Valley outfit… “(Chuddar, 2012). When Steve return to Apple, he was described as practicing tyrannical leadership style ? ire and forced at will ? to ensure that his employees delivered products that consumers lusted for, in an ever-evolving digital world.

It certainly worked. Steve is the follower of Zen. Muslin (2001) researched that “His Zen awareness was not accompanied by an excess of calm, peace of mind or interpersonal mellowness,” and “He could stun an unsuspecting victim with an emotional towel-snap, perfectly aimed. ” As an autocratic leader, Steve Jobs is forceful and demands nothing less than total control. He makes the decisions, announces them and expecting others to carry them out without a question.

One of the things that Mr. Jobs did, which was very unlike anyone else, was he did it his way,” (Dailey, 2011 Steve Jobs choose to lead his team from the front, spearheading the innovation and constantly renewed products of the company. The autocratic nature of his leadership also bears some transactional traits, such as using verbal lashings at employees (Line, 2011). In meetings, Jobs was infamous for creating an atmosphere of fear. He had been described by some as being harsh, petulant and even boorish at times. Although it was not easy working for Jobs, those who can weather it tend to be loyal (Kenney, 2011. 108). Steve gained respect from both inside and outside the company by maintaining his focus despite his fame and fortune. He was certainly one of the most influential business leaders of his time. “There’s not an ounce of democracy at Apple. That’s what makes it a paragon of such traditional corporate values as top-down leadership, sharply hierarchical organization and centralized control. It’s Stave’s company ? pursuing his vision, at his pace, with his team, making his products. Without Steve Jobs’ authoritarian leadership, Apple would be just another Silicon Valley 2012).

When Steve return to Apple, he was described as practicing tyrannical leadership style ? fire and forced at will ? to ensure that his employees delivered products that consumers lusted for, in an ever-evolving digital world. It certainly worked. Steve is the follower of Zen. Muslin (2001) researched that “His Zen awareness was not accompanied by an excess of calm, peace of mind or interpersonal mellowness,” and “He could stun an unsuspecting victim with an emotional towel-snap, perfectly aimed. ” As an autocratic leader, Steve Jobs is forceful and demands nothing less than total control.

He makes the sections, announces them and expecting others to carry them out without a question. “One of the things that Mr. Jobs did, which was very unlike anyone else, was he did it his way,” (Dailey, 2011). Steve Jobs choose to lead his team from the front, spearheading the innovation and constantly renewed products of the company. The autocratic nature of his leadership also bears some transactional traits, such as using verbal lashings at employees (Line, 2011). In meetings, Jobs was infamous for creating an atmosphere of fear. He had been described by some as being harsh, petulant and even boorish at times.

Although it was not easy working for Jobs, those who can weather it tend to be loyal (Kenney, 2011. P. 108). Steve gained respect from both inside and outside the company by maintaining his focus despite his fame and fortune. He was certainly one of the most influential business leaders of his time. “There’s not an ounce of democracy another Silicon Valley 2012). When Steve return to Apple, he was described as practicing tyrannical leadership style ? fire and forced at will ? to ensure that his employees delivered products that consumers lusted for, in an ever-evolving digital world.

It certainly worked. Steve is the follower of Zen. Muslin (2001) researched that “His Zen awareness was not accompanied by an excess of calm, peace of mind or interpersonal mellowness,” and “He could stun an unsuspecting victim with an emotional towel-snap, perfectly aimed. ” As an autocratic leader, Steve Jobs is forceful and demands nothing less than total certainly one of the most influential business leaders of his time. In reality, Steve truly appreciates and cherishes his people. Free products are the norm, with every employee receiving an phone at the product’s launch.

According to Elliot and Simon (2011, p. 3-83), the most memorable example is Stave’s decision that the signature of the original engineer would be etched on the inside of the cases of Macs. Such rewards created much staff satisfaction and motivation, as they felt that they are part of the product. People become more connected to their work. Indeed, he finds ways to assure his employees that he appreciates their contribution and that they are essential to the product’s success. Steve Jobs’ leadership style was complex.

He was intensely focused when committed, confident to take risky leaps, and charismatic enough to enlist corps of employees and customers in the incessant pursuit of his aspirations. Steve was firm when he stepped back into Apple and began his drastic reorganization. He was clear and knew what had to be done. He is passionate of what he did, believing that he is pursuing a higher cause in the processes. The result is an Apple culture that borders brand fanaticism and radical customer devotion. Although Jobs was highly criticized for his autocratic leadership style, he has successfully revolutionized the Apple Company. . Steve Jobs’ leadership style within contemporary leader Steve Jobs will likely e remembered as one of the most successful and iconic leaders of the last half century. He is admired for his vision, innovation and passion on products yet often hated for his autocratic and intimidating leadership style. In comparison, William (Bill) H. Gates Ill, co-founder, chairman and chief executive officer of Microsoft Corporation has also been described as one of the most successful entrepreneurs in the world.

Despite their similar ambitions in the technology and business arena, they have very different personality and leadership style. The competition and rivalry between Gates and Jobs has become one of the cost enduring and fascinating subject in the American business industry. Both of them had important impacts on the world. Both young men were born in the same year (1955), they set out from the same beginning point, but with radically different personalities. Both dropped out of college and launched their own businesses. Apple ushered in the era of personal mobile computing in many respects.

Microsoft’s had made it possible for a generation of computer scientists to learn and thrive. Apple has perfected the art of delivering fantastic consumer products. Microsoft has worked diligently to make the enterprise more efficient. It is impossible to deny each corporation’s contribution. Each has his own unique strengths. Nevertheless, both are well-known and idealized by many. Comparing their business philosophy, Microsoft’s “A computer on every desk in every house, running Microsoft software” (Livingston, 1994) is concerned about running their software in every computer.

Apple’s “Make computers accessible to everyone and make it easy to use” (Grumman, 201 1) is more about making their computers easy to use and easily accessible to everyone. “He was every bit as intense, believed in revolutionary way of using computers. But not in engineer approach, (but rather) a design approach, and that had huge strength, particularly the last where he ran Apple. He was able to do incredible work. ” (Parrish, 2012) Steve Jobs was more intuitive and had a greater instinct to make “impossible” happen and design delightful. He had passion for perfection, which make him demanding.

In Steve Jobs organization, there are only two categories, thought: If you weren’t brilliant, you were that other thing, a bozo. But with Steve, no matter how brilliant he knew you were, one remark that didn’t, by his standard, measure up, and he’d immediately label you a bozo. Even in front of other people (Elliot and Simon, 2011). Steve Jobs relies on forcing to resolve conflict such as in questions about design issues (Dublin, 2008). According to Kenney (2011), Steve is forceful, intimidating, brutal, and ruthless, and tyrants were words used to describe Stave’s autocratic leadership style.

He was obsessively controlling, throwing tantrums and yelling at employees and board members. “A bunch of amateurs” or “well, you’re a bunch of idiots. ” (Kenney, 2011) He could tear down someone’s ideas or the person in public if they not able to achieve what he wanted. Bill is known to project a more democratic leadership style. Although he does not address anyone by name, hand out praise or stroke any egos, he does listens intently and has his temper mostly in check. He is good in computer technology knowledge and coding. His thinks more practically.

His mind is more practical, disciplines and abundant in analytic processing power. Even when he disagreed with a staffs analysis of certain issue, his response was “Educate me on that”. After a minute or so, he cuts off the discussion by saying, “Send me the specs” (Occasions, 1997). In Apple, there is much secrecy in corporate decision aging, which often led to sudden and unanticipated changes. According to Elliot and Simon (2011), Steve will gather the people in separate teams, kept isolated from the distractions and interferences of the rest of the company.

Each team knew only of the parts they need to create, without any discussion or knowledge of the big picture. In contrast, Gates spends much of his time communicating with his team and consulting his IT specialist about how new products can be woven into industry standard products. He involved his subordinate in decision making. Bill Gates’ democratic leadership style is a reflection of his more practical ND disciplined mind set (Occasions, 1997). Under Gates’ leadership, Microsoft Corporation flourished, consistently landing in Fortune’s “100 Best Companies to Work For” (Lousier, 2008).

Both leaders are practicing different leadership style: Democratic and Autocratic. The leadership styles are extreme, whereas in practice the behavior of many, perhaps most, leaders in business will be somewhere between the two. Jobs and Gates believe in recruiting and retaining the best talents. However, Apple does not offer relevant formal training or development opportunities for its employees. Rather, employees are expected o gain new knowledge on their own (Mueller, 2010). One of the Stave’s principal is to hire the best-“A-people” (Elliot and Simon, 2011). Steve wants only real talent people in the company.

There are no training or knowledge sharing in projects or products. He expects excellent ideas and results from his people. In Microsoft, on the other hand, believes in staff training and development. “We’ve had technology a long time. We had some very sophisticated staff members. What Gates really allowed us to do is to roll it out further to more locations and people and give our staff the training and support to make that happen. Greener, 2003) They believe training is the most basic and sometimes most overlooked from knowledge sharing that need to go in a company.

Despite the past decade of U. S. Economic stagnation, Apple have grown continuously, and the stock price has advanced to the point where Apple is now the world’s most valuable firm, with a market cap of $391 billion, followed by Exxon-Mobil ($380 billion), IBM ($230 billion), and Microsoft ($228 billion) (Salesman, 2011). Steve Jobs had owned the wealthy company. Nevertheless, Steve Jobs is not known to be a philanthropist. Neither is he active in the charity work as compare to Bill Gates. Steve only concentrated on his products and company.

He only public face his visions and products. He does not have the sense of “giving back” to the community. As a charity leader, Bill Gates frequently encourages his staff to contribute to charity, both in terms of money and time. Giving is large part of Microsoft’s corporate culture. Bill Gates and his wife started The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; take up issues such as poverty, famine, and disease around the world (Likeness, 2009). This foundation focus on finding cures of diseases which are common in poor nations, also global development in farming and education.

Bill Gates’ contribution to the community is a reflection of his character and moral. Bill Gates has shown a good example that other leaders should practice and imitate his humanity towards other nations who need helps. Steve Jobs is respected for his products, but Bill Gates is respected for both his products and philanthropic leadership. A well-rounded organization is not unlike a well-rounded individual, they should balance the priority of work, family, charity and personal interest (Brown, 2006).

Gates’ visionary leadership style did not stop at product creation but extended to the creation of a dynasty. Microsoft as sales offices in nearly 60 countries and an international staff of 6200. Almost all of the employees are natives of the country in which they work. It is estimated that each overseas employees generates more than $limekiln in annual revenues. Gates tries to make certain that his foreign partners are in charge and that they share in the wealth (Lowe and Gates, 1998 p. 74). He had acquired great wealth, something which he gladly shared with stockholders and employees.

From his caring nature, Bill Gates had created “Microsoft Millionaires” from his programmers, managers and even secretaries. Gates’ vision of wealthy sharing as resulted in lifestyle improvement for every level of his employees. Although, Apple staff are well paid, their rewards for success are vastly and nowhere near that of Microsoft’s. According to Your (2004), Steve commented that Macintosh projects “The journey is the reward. ” Rewards in Apple are different. Steve allowed each designer to personally sign a placard that was reproduced and placed inside each Mac case (Sander, 2012).

Rewards are nice and this is the way Steve reward and recognize his people. As a charismatic and autocratic leader, Stave’s vision ended at creating the most iconic and desired technological rodents in history, building the most valuable and renowned brand of his time. There is no doubt that Stave’s influence and vision will live on in the products and company he created. Steve Jobs and Bill Gates are the visionary leader who always think creatively and have great insight to expect the future, which eventually transform the IT technology and changed the world greatly. . Conclusion The purpose of this paper is to discuss of the relevant leadership idea and to explore the leadership styles and to explore the Steve Job’s leadership approach. Considering his influence and success at Apple, it is clear that a duty of his leadership can provide valuable lessons for current and aspiring leaders. Steve has often been names one of the most prominent leaders in the US business circles. Despite his early demise, Steve Jobs has and is still touching the lives of people all around the world today.

His life makes an amazing story because despite all the hardships he faced and against all odds he achieved what he said he set out to achieve: become a millionaire. He had dream and he would not stop until it was lived out. Despite the fact that Stave’s leadership style is sometimes considered overly authoritative and that his company as being too resonantly-centered, he was able to achieve unprecedented success. Some of his styles and principals can be considered universal and applicable to other business, but others should be applied with caution or adapted to the actual business situation.

This brings to mind, one of the essential characteristics of the true leader-to be able to adopt and adapt as well as to accept differing opinion. There is much that we can learn from Steve-his passion, focus and influential nature. Influence does not stem from a set of management rules and techniques. Leaders who are passionate about their work, who are able to focus on things hat matter most, and exercise unwavering resolve in their decision tend to have a greater influence on people around them.