ADV PRO Unit 3

Question Answer
Lateral: Nasal bones IOML lined up, CR 1/2" below nasion,, 3×3 coll, both laterals done R and L, In xray must have tip of nose to nasion and acantion. assess fx
PA waters: Nasal bones MML perp, OML 37 degree to IR, CR exits acanthion, tight coll. assess fx and septal deviations
deviated septum internal nasal deformity in the bone that separates the two nostrils. i.e. "crooked nose"
rhinolith calculus or stone in the nose (nasal stone)
PA caldwell: Nasal Bones OML perp, 15 degrees caudal exits nasion, tight coll. assess fx and septal deviations
mandible largest facial bone, only movable facial bone in skull, starts as 2 bones and forms 1 solid bone at 1 yo
alveolar processes arch containing alveoli for the roots of the teeth. Also on maxillary side. would point at root of teeth.
Do you do a true lateral 0 degrees for the mandible? No
PA mandible: for body AML perp (tell pt chin and nose against IR), CR exit lips ( closed jaw)
PA mandible: for Rami OML perp (tell pt forehead and nose against IR), CR exits acanthion,
What cassette size do you use for mandible? 8×10
How can you tell PA for rami vs PA for body? For rami= round jaw. For body= square jaw
What 2 ways can you do axiolateral oblique positions? 1. tube angled 25 degree cephalic OR 2. partial head drop (5-10 degree) with 20 degree tube angle. Point is to get a total of 25 degree angle.
Axiolateral: For ramus pt in true lateral position, CR 25 degree cephalic between mentum and gonion
Axiolateral oblique: for body from true lateral roll pt 30 degrees, CR 25 degrees cephalic between mentum and gonion
axiolateral oblique: For symphysis from true lateral roll pt 45 degrees, CR 25 degree cephalic between mentum and gonion
General survey for mandible= Axiolateral oblique from true lateral roll head 10-15 degrees, CR 25 degree cephalic between mentum and gonion. Both sides always done.
accurate positioning for the SMV is what line? IOML
What does SMV for mandible show? mandibular body, coronoid processes, condyloid processes
SMV: for mandible IOML parallel to IR, CR thru gonia, same positioning as sinuses
AP axial towne: mandible OML perp, CR 35 degree caudal thru arches (midway between EAM and gonia)= 3" above nasion, bottom tip of mandible not needed??
What is the towne for mandible demonstrating? TMJ fossae and condyle relationship
Panorex: mandible IOML perp (like in lateral), mouth closed tongue on roof of mouth, used for mandible fractures and TMJ evaluation, demonstrates teeth, mandible and TMJs
zygomatic arch is formed by zygomatic process (temporal bone) and temporal process (zygomatic bone).
zygomatic prominence positioning landmark, prominent portion of zygoma, "cheek bone"
Modified AP towne: zygomatic arches OML perp, CR 30 degree caudal enter glabella 1" above nasion thru arches. 8×10 CW, coll mandible and vertex not needed
If you cannot use OML use what line? and what angle for AP townes zygomatic arches? IOML 37 degree caudal
SMV: zygomatic arches IOML parallel to IR, CR 1" posterior to outer canthi at level of arches. angle cephalic if cannot get IOML
SMV criteria for arches mentum lined with frontal bone, arches symmetrical w/o foreshortening, no rotation, arches in profile. less penetration needed for arches??
Oblique axial/ tangential projection for arches From SMV position (IOML parallel) , Roll MSP 15 degree toward affected side and tilt vertex 15 degree away from affected side
PA waters for arches same as routine PA waters, MML perp CR thru arches ,collimated over zygoma, petrous portion below maxillary sinus
Is there a true lateral for TMJs? No
Which positions for TMJ do open and closed mouth? ALL of them
AP axial for TMJs OML perp, CR 35 degree caudal 3" above nasion. both open and closed.
Axiolateral projection: Shuller method for TMJ Head true lateral IOML lined up, CR 25-30 degree caudal to affected (dependent) TMJ and 1/2" anterior to EAM, coll 5×5 In xray the dependent TMJ is directly ABOVE the independent TMJ.
Axiolateral oblique projection: Law method for TMJ Start with head in true lateral IOML lined up, rotate head 15 degrees towards IR, CR 15 degree caudal to dependent TMJ and 1/2" anterior to EAM, coll 5×5. In xray dependent TMJ will make an "L" with independent TMJ.
2 circulatory systems lymphatic (minor) cardiovascular (major)
pulmonary circulation controlled by right side of heart. recieves and send deoxygenated blood to the lungs. "thinner" side.
systemic circulation controlled by left side of the heart. receivese and sends oxygen rich blood to tissues and organs. "thicker" side bc it works harder to pump to whole body.
coronary arteries classified as "end circulation"
What is the magic number of the heart? 4! chambers, valves and major blood vessels going into and leaving the heart
atrioventricular (tricuspid) valve In between atrium and ventrical on right side, blood can only go one way.
Pulmonary (semilunar) valve leaves the right ventrical to the lungs
Left atrium recieves blood from the lungs
mitral (bicuspid) valve in between left atrium and ventrical. prevents backflow
aortic valve leaves left ventrical to go to the body circulation
brachiocephalic artery has 3 branches RT= common carotid, subclavian, vertebral
common carotids are ___________ circulation anterior
vertebral arteries are _________________ circulation posterior
angiography examination of vessels
contrasts used in angiography positive, non-ionic contrast media
most commonly used injection technique Seldinger Technique! Know the steps!
What is a trocar? 3 edged medical device. has metal or plastic obturator tip, cannula and seal
venous needles inserted into vein are shorter in length, go down stream, dark red blood
arterial needles inserted into artery are longer in length, go up stream, bright red blood
introducer sheaths allow for multiple attachments
How to calculate size/diameter of catheter? use french gauge system. Divide the french number by 3.
Radionuclide MPI MPI=myocardial perfusion imaging. Non invasicce, do an exercise stress test, use Thallium contrast.
most common IV site for specials femoral artery
post catheterization procedure firm pressure to prevent bleeding at least 15-30 min and pt vitals monitored for 24 hours
most common cardiovascular disease Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
artherosclerosis stenosis (narrowing) o the coronary arteries
Right heart catheterization "venous access" measures everything on the right side of the heart (pressure and blood oxygen saturation, cardiac output). gets lodged in left pulmonary artery. use Swan ganz catheter or PAC
Left heart catheterization "arterial access" looks at the LT ventrical for dysfunction, disease or obstruction, goes through femoral artery, use pigtail catheter
Aortography accomplished by placing catheter at desired level of aorta
Interventional therapeutic (to relieve, correct, repair) plasty=repair
Diagnostic (to find and evaluate) graphy= to record, image to diagnose
Intravascular stent to open/reopen occluded vessel and keep it opened, to improve blood flow ex. stenosis.
Endovascular stent to hold arteries in place. strengthens/reinforces/repairs weak artery ex. aneurysm