AP Gov – unit 1

Term Definition
representative democracy A govt in which leaders make decisions by winning a competitive struggle for the popular vote
constitutional democracy A govt system in which political authority is defined, limited, and distributed by a constitution
constitutionalism constitutional government
statism political system where the state has substantial control over economic and social affairs
popular consent The idea that a just government must derive its powers from the consent of the people it governs
majority The candidate or party that wins more than half the votes cast in an election, needed to pass new laws
plurality Dispersion of power among the politically active group, there is no majority in government
social capital the networks of relationships among people who live and work in a particular society, enabling that society to function effectively
ideology A set of basic values and beliefs, A person's political ideology creates a basic structure for interpreting politics and determining positions on individual issues
theocracy Government run by religious leaders, who claim divine guidance – Say that Supreme leader is God – Good because efficient and not much disagreement but bad because there is no freedom of religion or seperation between church and state
articles of confederation The first governing document of the confederated states, ratified in 1781, and replaced by the present Constitution in 1789. They were vague and left much of the power to the states, major issue: didn’t give the government the power to tax the people
shay's rebellion A 1787 rebellion in which ex-revolutionary war soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interests rates and taxes
bicameralism A lawmaking body made up of 2 chambers or parts – ex) the legislative branch of our government
connecticut compromise Aka Great Compromise. Plan to have a popularly elected house based on state population and a state selected senate, with 2 members for each state NJ wanted one vote per state, VA wanted representation based on population
three-fifths compromise The population of slaves would be counted as three-fifths in total when apportioning Representatives, as well as Presidential electors and taxes
federalists Those who favor a stronger national government (nationalists) Madison, Hamilton, Jay, Adams, Washington
anti-federalists Those who favor a weaker national government (states righters) Patrick Henry, Jefferson
the federalist papers The Federalist is a collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution We read No. 10 (factions) and 51 (checks and balances)
separation of powers Constitutional authority is shared by 3 different branches of government (legislative, judicial, executive) – No branch should be able to have too much power because they can check each other's power
checks and balances Authority shared by 3 branches of government to prevent an abuse of power from one branch – ex) judicial review, President’s power to veto
divided government A type of government in which one party controls the executive branch while another party controls one or both houses of the legislative branch
impoundment A traditional budgeting procedure by which the President of the United States once could prevent any agency of the Executive Branch from spending part or all of the money previously appropriated by Congress for their use
direct primary An election in which voters choose candidates to run on a party's ticket in a subsequent election for public office
referendum The power of the courts to declare laws unconstitutional
judicial review The power of the courts to declare laws unconstitutional
impeachment Charges against a president approved by a majority of the House of Representatives which leads to a removal from office
executive privilege The power of the President of the United States and other members of the executive branch to resist certain subpoenas (a document ordering a person to attend court)
custom and usage A usage is a repetition of acts whereas custom is the law or general rule that arises from such repetition
devolution revolution The effort to slow the growth of the federal government by returning many functions to the states
federalism The power sharing relationship between the national and state/local government
unitary system a sovereign state governed as a single entity. The central government is supreme, and the administrative divisions exercise only powers that the central government has delegated to them
confederation government in which the states are sovereign and the national government is allowed to do only that which the states permit
block grants A large sum of money granted by the national government to a regional government with only general provisions as to the way it is to be spent
categorical grants A large sum of money granted by the national government to a regional government but has stricter and specific provisions on the way it is to be spent
express powers specifically named in the Constitution (aka delegated/ enumerated): including power to establish rules to allow foreign-born immigrants to become citizens of the United States, power to make rules for bankruptcies, power to punish counterfeiters
implied powers powers of U.S. government which have not been explicitly granted by the Constitution but that is implied by the necessary and proper clause to be delegated for the purpose of carrying out the enumerated powers
necessary and proper clause Part of Constitution allowing Congress to pass all laws “necessary and proper” to its duties, and which has permitted Congress to exercise powers not specifically given to it (enumerated) by the Constitution
inherent powers Inherent powers are those powers that Congress and the president need in order to get the job done right
commerce clause Article 1, Section 8, Clause 3 of the U.S. Constitution, which gives Congress the power “to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes.”
federal mandates orders that induce "responsibility, action, procedure or anything else that is imposed by constitutional, administrative, executive, or judicial action" for state and local governments
concurrent powers the power shared by the federal and state governments
full faith and credit clause addresses the duties that states within the United States have to respect the "public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state."
extradition Legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the officials of one state to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed
interstate compact agreement between two or more states
national supremacy stating that all laws made furthering the Constitution and all treaties made under the authority of the United States are the “supreme law of the land.”
unfunded mandate A statute or regulation that requires a state or local government to perform certain actions, yet provides no money for fulfilling the requirements
preemption The right of a federal law or regulation to preclude enforcement of a state or local law or regulation
centralists a supporter of strong national government and weak state power
decentralists People who favor state or local action rather than national action
revenue sharing A law providing for the distribution of a fixed amount or share of federal tax revenues to the states for spending on almost any government purpose – ex) tolls