Question Answer
Definition of an Atom Basic unit of matter
What are the particles of an Atom Proton(positive), neutron(neutral), and electron(negative)
Definition of compounds Substance formed by chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions
Definition of Ionic Bonds Formed when one of more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
Definition of Covalent Bonds Formed when two atoms share electrons
Which bond is stronger? Ionic or Covalent? Covalent
Why is covalent the stronger bond? Because covalent shares electrons instead of giving them away
What are the 6 important Elements for life? Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur
What is water composed of? 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen
How is water polar? Water has an uneven distribution between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms
Why Do water molecules attract each other? Because water is partially negative and partially positive.
What are hydrogen bonds? When water molecules attract each other.
What is cohesion? The attraction between molecules of the same substance.
What is adhesion? The attraction between molecules of different substances.
What is capillary action? The force that draws water up against the force of gravity.
What is hydrophilic? Water loving(usually polar molecules)
What is hydrophobic? Water fearing(usually non-polar molecules)
What is a mixture? Material composed of 2 or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together.
What is a solution? When all the components are evenly dispersed throughout the mixture.
What is solute? The substance that is dissolved.
What is a solvent? The substance in which the solute is dissolved in.
What is a suspension? When all the particles do not dissolve but are separated in smaller pieces so they dona??t settle out.
What is a PH scale? The scale that indicates the concentration of the H+ ions on a solution.
The scale runs from what number? 0-14
What PH does pure water have? 7
What PH do acids have? Lower than 7
What PH do bases have? Higher than 7
What ions do acids have more of? H+
What ions do bases have more of? H-
What surrounds the nucleus of an Atom? Electron cloud
When am Atom loses an electron, what charge does it have? Negative
In a water molecule, which atoms are positive and which are negative? Hydrogena??s are positive and oxygens are negative
Most life processes are a series of chemical reactions influenced by what 2 factors? Environmental and genetic
What is metabolism? The sum of all biochemical processes
What 2 processes make up metabolism? Anabolic and catabolic
What is anabolism? The building up of complex molecules
What is catabolism? The breaking down of complex molecules
What element makes a molecule organic? Carbon
What are the 5 functions macromolecules perform? Energy production, transport, waste disposal, synthesis(creation) of new molecules, and the storage of genetic material.
How many bonds can carbon form? 4 covalent bonds
What are macromolecules? Building blocks also called monomers.
What are the 4 main macromolecules? Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleus acids
What are the 3 main carbohydrates? Monosaccharide, disaccharide, and polysaccharide
What are the 2 functions of carbohydrates? Provide and store energy
What is another name for something that is not soluble in water? Lipids
Which macromolecule stores the most energy? Lipids
What are the 5 functions of lipids? Long-term energy storage, protection against heat, protection against water loss and germs, chemical messengers, and its a major component of membranes
What are triglycerides made of? 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids
What are the 2 kinds of fatty acids? Saturated fatty acids(bad) and u saturated fatty acids(good)
What are the building blocks of protein? Amino acids
What are the 2 kinda of amino acids? Essential and non-essential
What are the 7 functions of protein? Storage, transport, regulatory, movement, structural, enzymes, and defense
How many levels of structure do proteins have? 4
What are enzymes? Proteins that help speed up chemical reactions in the body
How are enzymes specific in their function? Each enzyme only had one reaction
What is meant bya??enzymes are not changed when they perform their function?a?? The same enzyme can be used more than once.
What determines the enzymes function? The shape
What is denaturing? When an enzyme cana??t work anymore due to changes in temperature and PH level
What is an active site? The place where a substrate binds to an enzyme
What function do nucleic acids provide? Controlling cell activities by controlling protein synthesis
What are the 2 types of nucleic acids? Deoxyribonucleic acid( DNA-double helix) and ribonucleic acid(RNA-single strand)
What are the building blocks of nucleic acids? Nucleotides
What makes up the back bone of a nucleic acid? Phosphate group and sugar(5-carbon)
What are the nitrogen bases Adenine, thymine, cytosine, uracil, and guanine
What are the nitrogen base bondings? For DNA it is A-T and G-C. For RNA it is A-U and G-C.