Chapter 1-3 Test

Question Answer
In 1879, in psychology’s first experiment, _______ and his students measured the time lag between hearing a ball hit a platform and pressing a key. Wilhelm Wundt
In the early twentieth century, _______ redefined psychology as “the science of observable behavior.” John B. Watson
A psychologist treating emotionally troubled adolescents at a local mental health agency is most likely to be a(n) clinical psychologist.
A mental health professional with a medical degree who can prescribe medication is a _______. psychiatrist
A psychologist doing research from the _______ perspective might be interested in how our blood chemistry affects our moods and motives. neuroscience
Nature is to nurture as biology is to experience.
_______ _______ is the principle that our mind processes information on two tracks at the same time—one with our full awareness and the other outside of our awareness. dual processing
_______ _______ refers to our tendency to perceive events as predictable and obvious after the fact. hindsight bias
Theory-based predictions are called hypotheses
Knowing that two events correlate provides a basis for prediction.
To explain behaviors and clarify cause and effect, psychologists use _______. experiments
In this, neither the participants nor the researchers know who is in the experimental group or control group. double-blind procedure
The neuron fiber that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles and glands is the axon
In a sending neuron, when an action potential reaches an axon terminal, the impulse triggers the release of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters
____________are released in the brain in response to pain or vigorous exercise. endorphins
_________________controls the glands and the muscles of our internal organs autonomic nervous system
The neurons of the spinal cord are part of the _______ nervous system central
______________is especially evident in the brains of young children. plasticity
Failure to see visible objects because our attention is occupied elsewhere is called _______ _______. inattentional blindness
Our body temperature tends to rise and fall in sync with a biological clock, which is referred to as our _________ circadian rhythm
In interpreting dreams, who was most interested in their latent content, or hidden meaning. Freud
The three major issues that interest developmental psychologists are nature/nurture, stability/change, and continuity/stages
The threadlike structures made largely of DNA molecules are called ________________ chromosomes
A small segment of DNA is referred to as a ___________________ gene
Chemicals that the placenta isn’t able to screen out that may harm an embryo or fetus are called __________________ teratogens
Stroke a newborn’s cheek and the infant will root for a nipple. This illustrates a reflex.
_______ twins share the same DNA. Identical
Between ages 3 and 6, the human brain experiences the greatest growth in the _______ lobes, which we use for rational planning and which aid memory. frontal
An 8-month-old infant who reacts to a new babysitter by crying and clinging to his father’s shoulder is showing _______ _______. stranger anxiety
From the very first weeks of life, infants differ in their characteristic emotional reactions, with some infants being intense and anxious, while others are easygoing and relaxed. These differences are usually explained as differences in temperament
Adolescence is marked by the onset of __________ puberty.
According to ________________, a person who can think logically about abstractions is in the formal operations stage Piaget
In ________________stages, the primary task during adolescence is forging an identity. Erikson’s
Freud defined the healthy adult as one who is able to love and work. Erikson agreed, observing that the adult struggles to attain intimacy and generativity