chapter 2

Question Answer
Producer an organism that can make its own food.
Consumer an organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms.
Herbivore consumers that eat only plants are herbivores.
Carnivore Consumers that eat only animals are carnivores.
Omnivore Consumers that eat both plants and animals are omnivores.
Scavenger A carnivore that feeds on the bodies of dead organisms.
Decomposer Breakdown biotic wastes and dead organisms and return the raw materials to the ecosystem.
Food chain A series of events in which one organism eats another and obtains energy.
Food web Consists of many overlapping food chains in a ecosystem.
Energy pyramid It shows the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web.
Evaperation The process in which molecules at the surface of a liquid absorb enough energy to change to a gas.
Condensation The change in state from a gas to a liquid.
Precipitation Any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earths surface as rain, snow, sleet, or hail.
Nitrogen Fixation The process of changing free nitrogen gas into nitrogen compounds that plants can absorb and use.
Biome A group of ecosystems with similar climates and organisms.
Climate The average annual conditions of temperature, precipitation, winds, and clouds in an area.
Desert A dry region that on average receives less than 25 centimeters of precipitation per year.
Rain forest A forest that receives at least 2 meters of rain per year, mostly occurring in the tropical wet climate zones.
Canopy A leafy roof formed by tall trees in a rain forest.
Emergent layer The tallest layer of rain forest that receives the most sunlight.
Understory A layer of shorter trees and vines that grows in the shade of a forest canopy.
Deciduous tree A tree that produces its seeds in cones and that has needle-shaped leaves coated in a waxy substance to reduce water loss.
Boreal forest Dense forest of evergreens located in the upper regions of the Northern Hemisphere.
Savvana A grassland located close to the equator that may include shrubs and small trees and receives much as 120 centimeters of rain per year.
Grassland An area polluted mostly by grassess and other nonwoody plants that get 25 to 75 centimeters of rain each year.
Tundra An extremely cold, dry biome climate region characterized by short, cool summers and bitterly cold winters.
Coniferous tree A tree that produces its seeds in cones and that has needle-shaped leaves coated in a waxy substance to reduce water loss.
Permafrost Permanently frozen soil found in the tundra biome climate region.
Estuary A kind of wetland formed where fresh water from rivers mixes with salty ocean water.
Intertidal zone An area between the highest high-tide line on land to the point on the continental shelf exposed by the lowest of low-tide line.
Neritic zone The area of the ocean that extends from the low-tide line out to the edge of the continental shelf.
Dispersal The movement of organisms from one place to another.
Exotic species Species that are carried to a new location by people.
Continental drift The hypothesis that the continents slowly move across Earths surface.
Biogeography The study of where organisms live and how they got there.