Chapter 21

Question Answer
Edict of Nantes declaration of religious toleration.
Cardinal Richelieu ruler of France when absolute ruling was weak.
Skepticism idea that nothing can ever be know for certain.
Louis XIV most powerful ruler in French history.
Intendant government agents who collected taxes and administered justice.
Jean Baptiste Colbert minister of finance that believed the theory of mercantilism.
War of the Spanish Succession war, between England, Austria, the Dutch Republic, Portugal, several German and Italian states united to keep the union of the French and Spanish thrones, from 1701-1713.
Absolutism the political belief that one ruler should hold all of the power within the boundaries of a country.
Causes of Absolutism Religious and territorial conflicts created fear and uncertaintyThe growth of armies to deal with conflicts caused rulers to rise taxes to pay troopsHeavy taxes led to additional unrest and peasant revolts
Effects of Absolutism Rulers regulated religious worship and social gatherings to control the spread of ideasRulers increased the size of their courts to appear more powerfulRulers created bureaucracies to control their countries' enemies
Who signed the Peace of Augsburg and what did it do Charles V; allowed German princes to pick the religion practiced in their territory
What did raised taxes in the Netherlands cause a revolt in the church
What did the War of Spanish Succession do kept France and Spain from uniting
Who went to Skepticism first writers
Mercantalism nations wanting to increase power and wealth by selling more than they bought
Who was the first ruler to have a public trial and execution. Charles II
Divine Right idea that God created the monarchy and it was his Earth representative
Charles I Son of James I, next in line to rule; financial and political issues with parliament. Always at war with Spain and France; his popularity decreased by year
English Civil War a conflict, lasting from 1642 to 1649, in which Puritan supporters of Parliament battled supporters of England’s monarchy.
Oliver Cromwell Oliver Cromwell: Abolished the House of Lords and the monarchy; put down a rebellion almost as soon as he took the throne. Started in the military then “co-ruled” with King Charles.
Restoration the period of Charles II’s rule over England, after the collapse of Oliver Cromwell’s government.
Habeas Corpus a document requiring that a prisoner be brought before a court or judge so that it can be decided whether his or her imprisonment is legal.
Glorious Revolution the bloodless overthrow of the English king James II and his replacement by William and Mary.
Constitutional Monarchy a system of governing in which the ruler’s power is limited by law.
Cabinet a group of advisers or ministers chosen by the head of a country to help make government decisions.
What war lasted from 1642-1649 The English Civil War
The Bill of Rights kept rulers from: Stopping freedom of speech in the ParliamentPenalizing citizens for petitioning the kingSuspending laws put into place by the ParliamentLevying taxes without permission from the Parliament
How did the English Civil War end Puritan commander Oliver Cromwell beat the supporters of the King
Difference between absolute and constitutional monarchies In absolute monarchies the king has full power over everyone but in a constitutional monarchy the king shares the power with high personal and can be overruled. In a constitutional monarchy, laws written by a legislative body can limit the ruler's power,