COMM 1000 Final Exam

Question Answer
What words are not concrete or tangible items: they are only representations? Abstract
What are nonverbal behaviors that augment a verbal message? Accent
What is the third step of the persuasion process in which the audience accepts that the issue is relevant to them? Acceptance
What is repeating the same consonant or vowel sound at the beginning of subsequent words? Alliteration
What is the language that does not have precise, concrete meanings? Ambiguos
What is it when two ideas that sharply contrast with one another are put side by side in a parallel structure Antithesis
What are the symbols used to represent things that are not intrinsically connected to those things? Arbitrary
What are metaphors that use common human experiences to describe another object? Archetypal metaphors
What is physically producing the sound needed to convey the word? Articulation
What is constructed by the speaker for the occasion: concerns ethos: pathos, and logos? Artistic Proof
What is a style of leadership in which a leader tells group members what they should do? Autocratic leadership
What is the first stage of the persuasion process in which you focus the audience's attention on the issue and show why the issue is important? Awareness
What is a graph that shows two axes and bars going either horizontally or vertically to represent total achievement? Bar Graph
What is an unfair preference or distortion of information? Bias
What is a group presentation in which the first speaker is also the last speaker, proving both the introduction and conclusion for the group? Bookend Group Presentation
What is a narrative in which the speaker tells the first part of a story as an attention getter in the introduction of his/her speech and then finishes the story in the closer at the end of the conclusion? Booked Story
What is using words such as "and", "but", and "or" when typing in search terms to focus the results? Boolean operators
What is it to create a list of possible topics and keep adding to this list as you think of new ideas? Brainstorm
What is an example that makes a very quick point and can be effective at any point in a speech? Brief Example
What is a syllogism in which the argument is based on membership in a group? Categorical Syllogism
What is the media through which an encoded message is transmitted from a source to a receiver? Channel
What is a visual depiction of summaries of numeric data? Chart
What is the final statement of your speech? Clincher
What is the fear or anxiety associated with real or anticipated communication with another or other? Communication Apprehension
What is it when the action demonstrates the message contained in the verbal content? Complement
What is the stage of the persuasion process in which the audience understands the relevant components of the issue and the position that you want them to take? Comprehension
What is also known as a mind map, a visual representation of the potential areas that you could cover in your speech? Concept Map
What is a syllogism in which the major premise contains a hypothetical condition and its outcome? Conditional Syllogism
What is all information on the same level has the same significance? Coordination
What is the ability of a person to inspire belief or trust in others? Credibility
What is a table at which people sit in the from of the room? Dias
What is the process of drawing meaning from the symbols that were used to encode a message? Decoding
What is an argument that reasons from known premises to an inevitable conclusion? Deductive reasoning
What is a style of leadership in which a leader finds a balanced emphasis on task and maintenance dimensions in a group? Democratic Leadership
What are categories of definable characteristics of groups of people, such as age, race, religion, socioeconomic status, education level, and sexual orientation? Demographics
When the form of credibility that manifests itself during your presentation? Derived Credibility
What is syllogism in which the major premise includes two or more mutually exclusive alternatives? Disjunctive Syllogism
What is the principle that if a point is divided into sub points, there must be two or more sub points? Division
What is taking an abstract notion and providing it with meaning through the application of symbols? Encoding
What is the context in which the communication process takes place? Environment
What involves morals and the specific moral choices to be made by a person? Ethics
What is the credibility of a speaker? Ethos
What is a speech that pays tribute to the life of the deceased? Eulogy
What is a testimony from someone who has conducted extensive research on the topic, has significant experience with the topic, or holds a position that lends credibility to their ideas on the subject matter? Expert Testimony
What is a speech delivered with notes but without the entire speech in front of the speaker? Extemporaneous Speech
What is an example that takes time, and the importance lies in the details? Extended Example
What is the receiver's response to a message that is sent to the sender? Feedback
What is it when the two cases being compared are from completely different classifications? Figurative Analogy
What is a brief statement representing what you aim to do with the speech; there are three types? General Purpose Statement
What is taking an entire piece fo work and saying that it is your own? Global Plagiarism
What is a type of chart that illustrates numeric data by using a visual diagram? Graph
What is attacking a person or group of people based upon their gender, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, social actions, or any other category that indicates applications of a negative unwarranted stereotype? Hate Speech
What is the language that is structured according to more or less, higher or lower? Hierarchial
What is a visual representation of a frequency table in which the categories are placed on the horizontal axis and vertical bars are used to represent the number (or frequency) of individuals that fit into that category? Histogram
What is an example that is fictional? Hypothetical Example
What is a presentation done with little or no preparation? Impromptu Speech
What requires all the evidence, data, and documents that exist outside of the speaker and the audience, but nevertheless can aid in persuasion? Inartistic Proofs
What is using part of someone else's work and not citing it as a source? Incremental Plagiarism
What is an argument that comes to a probable, instead of an absolute, conclusion? Inductive Reasoning
What is the credibility that you have with the audience before you begin your speech that is based on your experience and the audience's prior knowledge about you? Initial Credibility
What is the fourth step of the persuasive process in which the audience adopts the position that you want them to take? Integration
What is the communication theory that views communication as a two way process that includes feedback and the environment? Interactive model of communication
What is a statement that summarizes what you have already covered and precedes transitions? Internal Summary
What serves as an outline of what is to come next in a speech and is often combined with transition statements? Internal Preview
What is the first stage of the persuasion process, in which you focus the audience's attention on the issue and show why the issue is important? Issue awareness
What is a style of leadership in which the leader provides little direction on the task and makes little effort to develop or maintain relationships between group members? Laissez Fair Leadership
What is a leadership approach in which the leader is the person who is responsible for completing tasks that are not finished or undertaken by other group members? Leader-as-Completer approach
What is the stand behind which people speak and on which they place their notes? Lectern
What is the theory that views communication as a one way process in which a source conveys an encoded message through a channel to a receiver, who then decodes that message? Linear model of communication
What is a graph that uses lines drawn along two axes that show growth, loss, or flat developments over time? Line Graph
What is it when the two cases being compared are classified the same way? Literal Anology
What is the logical dimension of the appeal? Logos
What is it when a speaker has an entire speech written out word-for-word in front of him/her he/she speaks? Manuscript Speech
What is the average of all of the scores in a distribution, which is calculated by adding all of the scores and then dividing by the total number of scores? Mean
What are the statistics that indicate where the middle of a distribution lies, including the mean, median, and mode? Measure of central tendency
What is the middle number in a distribution of numbers? Median
What is it when a speaker commits an entire speech to memory and delivers it with no notes in front of him/her? Memorized Speech
What is the content or idea that the source tries to convey to the audience? Message
What is a linguistic device that allows for comparisons between two objects by highlighting qualities of each object in explicit comparisons? Metaphor
What is using a tangible object to represent an otherwise tangible thing? Metonymy
What are metaphors that compare two objects that have no logical connection with each other? Mixed Metaphor
What is the score that appears most often in a distribution of numbers? Mode
What is a three dimensional representation of an actual object? Model
Who is a person whom acts as the coordinator of the discussion flow and ensures a civil, organized, and complete delivery of information to the audience? Moderator
What is a story? Narrative
What is a cause that must be present for an effect to happen? Necessary cause
What is anything that can change the message after the source encodes and sends it? Noise
What is the thing being discussed, not a model or representation of that thing? Object
What is a group presentation in which individual speakers present their ideas on a single topic or a subset of a topic? Panel Group Presentation
What is similarly structuring related words, phrases, or clauses of speech? Parallelism
What is it when a speaker or writer takes original source material and changes a few words in it, but not enough to consider it a paraphrase, all the while not citing the original source material? Patchworking
What is taking ideas from more than one piece of work and putting them together into a new piece of work, and the presenting them as original work without giving due credit to the sources? Patchwork Plagiarism
What are the emotional dimensions of the appeal that can influence an audience's disposition toward the topic, speak, or occasion? Pathos
What is a testimony from someone who is in the same peer group as the audience but who is not necessarily an expert on the topic? Peer Testimony
What is a persistent irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that leads to a compelling desire to avoid? Phobias
What are elements of speaking that deal with the body? Physical Delivery
What is the immediate environment in which the speaker will be speaking? Physical Location
What is a picture of the object about which your are speaking? Photograph
What is a graph that shows circles that are "sliced" apart to represent percentages of the total "pie" for particular groups or categories? Pie Graph
What is taking the intellectual achievements of another person and presenting them as one's own? Plagiarism
What is a raised platform on which the speaker stands? Podium
What is language which is vulgar and irreverent? Profanity
What is the accepted standard of how a word sounds when spoken? Pronunciation
What is it when a speaker seeks to persuade people about how to interpret facts? Question of fact
What is it when a speaker takes a position on whether an action should or should not be taken? Question of Policy
What is a persuasive speech about the rightness or wrongness of an idea, action, or issue? Question of Value
What is an example that is factual? Real Example
What is it when you compare two similar cases to argue that what is true in which case is also true in the other? Reasoning by Analogy
What are arguments that claim one event or factor produces and effect? Reasoning by cause
What is the process of inferring general conclusions and making general claims from specific cases? Reasoning by example
What is it when something occurs when the presence of one thing indicates the presence of another? Reasoning by sign
What is the person or audience that a message is being transmitted to? Receiver
What is a response to potential opposition to your argument? Refutation
What are nonverbal actions that help govern the course of a speech or interaction? Regulate
What is when physical actions restate verbal messages? Repeat
What is repeating words and phrases? Repetition
What is convincing yourself that something is going to happen before it does, thus leading to the occurrence of what you originally expected? Self Fulfilling Prophecy
What are key words that signal to the audience that you are moving from one part of the speech to another? Signposts
What is a linguistic device that compares two things through the use of "like" or "as"? Simile
What is the person responsible for inventing the idea on which they intend to speak and craftng that idea to an audience? Source
What are devices that assist speakers, such as microphones, podiums, lecterns, and lighting? Speaking tools
What is a narrower version of the general purpose statement that identifies what you will talk about, what you will say about it, and what your hope the audience will take away from the speech? Specific Purpose Statement
What is a measure of variability that indicates how spread apart the numbers in the distribution are? Standard Deviation
What are the numbers that summarize and organize sets of numbers to make them easier to understand or visualize? Statistics
What is the process of creating a hierarchy of ideas in which the most general ideas appear first, followed by more specific ideas? Subordination
What are physical actions that take the place of verbal messages? Substitute
What is a cause that can produce the effect in question? Sufficient Cause
What is using one part of something to represent the whole thing? Synecdoche
What is the process in which people are slowly introduced to their fear so that each time they overcome the fear, the intensity is decreased? Systematic Desensitization
What is the level of credibility that you have when your speech concludes and that is the sum of your initial credibility and derived credibility? Terminal Credibility
What is using the words of other people as evidence? Testimony
What is a carefully worded one sentence encapsulation of exactly what you will cover in your speech? Thesis
What is the theory that views communication as a constant process in which all parties simultaneously play the roles of sender and receiver? Transactional model of communication
What are the connective statements that signal you are finished with one point and moving on to another? Transition
What are the elements of speaking that deal with voice? Verbal Delivery
What is a leadership approach that calls upon group leaders to perform tasks others in the group either cannot or are not qualified to perform? Vital Function Approach
What allows for voice and images to be sent live over the Web to another person? Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP)