Ecology chapter 2

Question Answer
Producer An organism that can make its own food
Consumer An organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms
Herbivore A consumer that obtains energy by eating only plants
Carnivore A consumer that obtains energy by eating only animals
Omnivore A consumer that obtains energy by eating both plants and animals
Scavenger A carnivore that feeds on the bodies of dead or decaying organisms
Decomposer An organism that gets energy by breaking down biotic wastes and dead organisms,and returns raw materials to the soil and water
Food Chain A series of events in an ecosystem in which organisms transfer energy by eating and by being eaten
Food Web The pattern of overlapping feeding relationships or food chains among the various organisms in an ecosystem
Energy Pyramid A diagram that shows the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web
Evaporation The process by which molecules at the surface of a liquid absorb enough energy to change to a gas
Condensation The change in state from a gas to liquid
Precipitation Any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches earths surface as rain,snow,sleet, or hail
Nitrogen Fixation The process of changing free nitrogen gas into nitrogen compounds that plants can absorb and use
Biome A group of ecosystems with similar climates and organisms
Climate The average annual conditions of temperature, precipitation,winds,and clouds in an area
Desert A dry region that on average receives less than 25 centimeters of precipitation per year
Rain Forest A forest that receives at least 2 meters of rain per year,mostly occurring in the tropical wet climate zone
Emergent Layer The tallest layer of the rain forest that receives the most sunlight
Canopy A leafy roof formed by tall trees in a rain forest
Understory A layer of shorter trees and vines that grows in the shade of a forest canopy
Grassland An area populated mostly by grasses and other nonwoody plants that gets 25 to 75 centimeters of rain each year
Savanna A grassland located close to the equator that may include shrubs and small trees and receives as much as 120 centimeters of rain per year
Deciduous Tree A tree that sheds its leaves during a particular season and grows new ones each year
Boreal Forest Dense forest of evergreens located in the upper regions of the northern hemishere
Coniferous Tree A tree that produces its seeds in cones ands that has needle shaped leaves coated in a waxy substance to reduce water loss
Tundra An extremely cold,dry biome climate region characterized by short, cool summers and bitterly cold winters
Permafrost Permanently frozen soil found in the tundra biome climate region
Estuary A kind of wetland formed where fresh water from river mixes with salty ocean water
Intertidal Zone An area between the highest high-tide line on land to the point on the continental shelf exposed by the lowest low-tide line
Neritic Zone The area of the ocean that extends from the low-tide line out to the edge of the continental shelf
Biogeography The study of where organisms live and how they got there
Continental Drift The hypothesis that the continents slowly move across earths surface
Dispersal The movement of organisms from one place to another
Exotic Species Species that are carried to a new location by people