History Quiz 11/20

Question Answer
Columbian Exchange global changes in the resources, habits, and values of Amerindians, Europeans, Africans, and Asians that followed the discovery and settlement of the Americas. This was the exchange of ideas, plants, animals, and people from the New World to the Old.
Dutch East India Company a company founded with government backing to trade with the East and Southeast Asians. The Dutch, English,and French governments sponsored these to start in the early 17th century.
Mercantilism a system in which government controls all economic activity in a country and it's colonies to make a country's government richer and stronger. (more riches=more power)
Balance of trade the difference in the country's imports and exports (to be balanced)
Factories Europeans established these along the coast of Africa during the age of Informal Empire.
Informal Empire the era in African history that lasted 1400s-1880, when Europeans remained content to restrict their dealings with Africa primarily to trade. Europeans and Africa=only valid for trading.
Middle Passage The 2nd part of Triangle Trade, a sea journey undertaken for slaves across the sea from West Africa to the West Indies.
Triangular Trade the best known trading system. It carried slaves, cash crops, and manufactured goods for the Americas to gain.
Treaty of Tordesillas agreement between Spain and Portugal aimed to settle conflicts over land by Columbus's discoveries.
Longitude Left to right
Latitude Up and down
Three reasons of exploration God, glory, gold
Started a navigation school in 1419 Prince Henry the Navigator
First (country) to establish trading posts in Africa, South America, India, and South East Asia. Portugal
New types of posts used by the Portuguese caravels
Native American empire that ruled in present day Mexico Aztec Empire
Native American empire that ruled in South America Incan Empire
Spanish conquistador that led expedition against Aztecs Cortes
Spanish conquistador that led expedition against Incans Pizarro
This disease was responsible for Native's death during the Columbian Exchange Small pox
First person to find an ocean route to India de Gama
Age of exploration Period between the 15th, 16th,and 17th centuries when Europeans began to traveling distances across the world and make contact with other cultures
First European to have circumnavigated the world Magellan= startedElcano= finishedMagellan= the credit*
Searched for the West Indies, ended up proving the world was circular, sailed West from Spain, found the Americas. Columbus
English man, sailed for Dutch East India Company, landing in New York looking for a northwest passage. Hudson (Hudson River)
How may slaves didn't survive the trip from Africa to the Americas? 1/3
Atlantic Slave Trade is another word for Triangular Trade
The Americas gave this to Europe from the Atlantic Slave Trade Raw materials
Europe traded to Africa this from the Atlantic Slave Trade Manufactured goods (guns for example)
passage from Africa to Americas Middle Passage
Why were Europeans looking for a sea passage to Asia? Spices
Where did Magellan die? The Philippines
Who traveled to the Chinese court of Kublai Khan and wrote his experiences in Asia, traveling along the Silk Road? Marco Polo
God to find new lands in the name of God, spread Christianity, conversion of people in certain areas, ethnocentrism
Ethnocentrism to believe other religions and practices aren't civilized in comparison to your own.
Glory end of isolation, make a name for oneself (gain greater status), to gain power (since the prestige of a national was based on ability of exploration)
End of isolation Europeans sough to grandeur, glory, and spirit of adventure.
Gold explorers wanted to expand their own wealth, wanted to gain greater status,
What had ben practiced since ancient times? Slavery
What did the need for workers on bring slavery to the Americas plantations
Native Americans could not supply what? Labor when needed
What 3 countries connected Triangular Trade? Europe, Africa, Americas
How many slaves were taken in the 16th, 17th, and 18th century? 16th=275,00017th=over a million18th=6 million
How many slaves were taken in total? 10 million
What were the first slaves? Prisoner of war
African merchants and chieftains did what to find slaves? Raided villages
Slave traders sold what? Slaves from African Merchants
What were the 3 sides of triangular trade? 1st side-taking goods from Europe to Africa2nd side (Middle Passage)- shipping Africans to the Americas3rd side-returning to Europe w produce
What kind of produce was received during the last stage of Triangular trade? Cotton, sugar, tobacco, molasses, and rum.
What factors led up to trinangular trade? Europeans were to weak, they needed labor, Muslims had a complete monopoly of trade routes, Mercantilism caused them to need raw materials.
Trade and travel changed the world how? Movement of people, cultural diffusion, genocides
Cultural diffusion spread of cultural beliefs through different nations
When slaves were captured, was it respectfully or violently? Violently
What were slaves forced to hold before being loaded on ships? Pens
Trans-atlantic journey? The Middle Passage
Ships were what? Filthy, hot, crowded
Slaves were sometimes forced to lie how? With how many inches of space between them? Lie in chains, 20 inches
Slaves alive= Maximized profits
Slaves were… force fed, thrown overboard to prevent spread of disease, only 50% survived during the early days, and the percentage soon decreased to 5% morality after the trade influence increased significantly.
On good conditions, how long did it take the ships during the Middle passage to sail from Angola to Brazil? 30 to 50 days.
British, French and Dutch ships how long from Guinea and Caribbean islands? 60 to 90 days
What happened during the selling process? 2/3 of the participants were men, they were washed off with grease and tar to look more wealthy, they were sold to auctioneers who inspected them and their teeth for age.
15th and 16th century 2,000 aa sold p/y
17th century 20,000 aa sold p/y
18th century 55,000 aa sold p/y
1780's 88,000 aa sold p/y
A total of 12 million Africans were taken where? To the western hemisphere
How many died from captivity and journey of destination? 4 million