Honors Bio Ch. 2-3 Notes for Chapters 2-3 for honors bio

Question Answer
What is a catalyst? A substance that decreases the activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction and, as a result, also increases the rate of the chemical reaction.
Once a chemical reaction starts, can it continue by itself and it will go at a certain rate? Yes, it will (activation energy).
Where do the chemical reactions happen for a organism? It has to take place at a organisms body temperature.
What are Enzymes? They are catalysts for chemical reactions in a living thing (lower activation level).
Do enzymes effect the equilibrium? No, they do not effect the equilibrium.
What is passive transport? The movement of molecules across a cell membrane without energy input from the cell.
What is Diffusion? The movement of molecules in a fluid or gas from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
What is a concentration gradient? The difference in the concentration of a substance from one location to another.
What is osmosis? Water molecules move across a semipermeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower concentration.
What is a isotonic Solution? Has a solute concentration equal to the concentration inside the cell.
What is a hypotonic solution? Has a solute concentration lower than the solute concentration inside the cell.
What is facilitated diffusion? Diffusion of molecules across a membrane through transport proteins.
Because hypotonic solutions have lower concentration, what does this mean? This means water molecules are more concentrated outside the cell than the inside.
What does pressure exerted on the cell wall by fluid inside the central vacuole provide? Provides structural support for each cell and for the plant as a whole.
What kind of adaptions do cells have/do? They can remove excess water.
Can a catalyst increase the rate of a chemical reaction? Yes, They can.