mp midterm 2 midterm 2

Term Definition
decubitus ulcer constant pressure to area of the skin /restricts blood flow to those tissues
what breaks down and sloughs off in a decubitus ulcer the epidermis and then dermis of the skin
where do ulcers most commonly occur?2 examples pressure points overlying bony prominence's(such as hip or sacrum)
whats another common name for a decubitus ulcer? pressure sores or bed sores
decubitus ulcer treatment? frequent re-positioning, increase protein intake to rebuild tissue, medical removal of dead tissue
the medical removal of dead tissue is called? debridement
punch biopsy uses circular metal cutter to remove plug shaped core
what layers will a punch biopsy take out/remove? epidermis/dermis/subcutaneous tissue
the layers of skin are? epidermis / dermis / subcutaneous tissue
epidermis.contains?which layer? contains dead cells /1st layer
dermis.contains?which layer? contains : arteries, veins , nerves, hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands./ 2nd layer
subcutaneous tissue.contains?provides?which layer? contains: adipose tissue (or fat that contains lipocytes)provides: insulation to conserve body heat
adipose fat containing lipocytes amount of fat in adipose tissue usually far exceeds any energy needs the body might have)
adip/o: fat
ose: full of
acne rosacea chronic skin condition/sebaceous glands secrete excessive amounts of sebum
acne rosacea made worse by heat/cold/stress/emotion/certain foods/sunlight
when having acne rosacea men can develop what? rinophyma (irregular enlargement of the nose
acre rosacea treatments topical antibacterial or antiprozoal drug /laser surgery to destroy small superficial blood vessels
cuticle an edge of dead cells/arising from epidermis along proximal end of the nail /
why does the cuticle adhere to the nail plate to prevent microorganisms from entering the nail root
cut/i: skin
cle; small thing
pedicul/o: lice
osis: condition / process
pediculosis infestation of lice and their eggs /
where do you find lice / pediculosis scalp / hair/ eyelashes / genital hair
how is pediculosis easily transmitted? through hats or combs
pediculosis treatments shampoo /skin lotion (both to kill lice)
malign/o: cancer
ant: pertaining to
malignant melanoma skin cancer that begins in the melanocytes in the epidermis
melan/o: black
cytes: cells
oma: tumor
4 characteristics of malignant melanoma ABCD/A-AssymetryB-BorderC-colorD-diameter
keloid: scar
kel/o: tumor
oid; resembling
keloid also known as a scar/very firm and abnormally large
is a keloid bigger or smaller than original injury? bigger
what is a keloid caused by overproduction of collagen
does a keloid scar fade or decrease over time? no
keloid treatments surgical removal (can grow back) often they do
lesion any visible damage to the skin/
lesions caused by disease or injury
malleolus bony projection of distal tibia(medial malleolus) /or distal fibula (lateral malleolus)
malleolus often mistakenly called ankle bones
bones of the skull
occipital bone protects back of your brain and supports your head
temporal bones (2) protect sides of your brain and support you face
the muscles that move your jaw rely on which bone (s) temporal bones
which bone(s) form the majority of your skull parietal(2) bones
the bone in front of the parietal bones the frontal bone
bone that protects the forehead frontal bone
bones that encase the middle and inner ear temporal bones
joints between bones are called sutures
sphenoid large irregular bone forms central base and sides of cranial and posterior walls of the eye sockets
bone that contains many hollow spaces ethmoid bone
ethmoid bone forms posterior nasal septum and medial walls of eye sockets
occipital bone forms posterior base of cranium
tibia large weight bearing bone of the lower leg
tibia is also known as the _____ bone shin
tibi/o: shin bone
osse/o: bone
arthr/o: joint
osseous tissue type of connective tissue for bones
DJD – osteoarthritis degenerative joint disease
DJD caused by overweight – joint is overused loss of cartilege
osteophyte bone spure
crepitus grinding sounds
DJD osteoarthritis treatments corticosteroid injections / surgical removal and joint replacement
bunionectomy (due to )—> hallux valgus
buinionectomy explain procedure removing prominant part of metetarsal bone that is causing bunion in patients with hallux valgus
pathological fracture fracture caused by a disease or process/ex's–> bone cancer, osteoporosis, metastases to the bone
path/o: disease
log/o: study of
muscle contusion muscle bruise
muscle contusions due to…? direct blows to soft muscle tissue
atrophy when muscles waste away due to non use
signs of an atrophied muscle stiff, smaller, shorter on one side of body vs the other
opposite of adduction abduction
opposite of pronation suppination
opposite of eversion inversion
opposite of flexion extension
the 3 types of muscle cardiac, smooth, skeletal
masset/o: chewing
masseter muscle muscle on the side of the jaw that moves the mandible upwards
aponeurosis wide fibrous sheet of connective tissue/attaches flat muscle to bone or to other deeper muscles
hamstrings-location collective name for 3 muscles in the posterior upper leg
(hamstrings)moving the upper leg posteriorly extension
(hamstrings)bend the lower leg towards the buttocks flexion
the 3 muscles of the hamstrings biceps femoris /semitendinosus /semimembranous muscles
parathesisasis abnormal sensation(typically tingling or prickling (pins and needles) caused by pressure or damage to peripheral nerves
is parathesiasis chronic might not be . could be many different things
cerebellumcoordinates? helps coordinate (especially movement specifically gait)
frontal lobe (of the cerebrum) function originates conscious thought and intelligence /predicts future events/exerts conscious voluntary control over skeletal muscles
parietal lobe (of cerebrum) function analyzes sensory info about hearing (from inside the cochlea of inner ear)/analyzes smell
occipital lobe (of cerebrum) function analyzes info about vision /from receptors in the retina of the eye
cerebrum connection between halves only connection is the corpus callosum
left hemisphere of cerebrum (function) mathematical and logical reasoning /recall of memories /speech center
which side of the brain associated with math left side
brainstem composed of midbrain / the pons / medulla oblongata
cerebellum info about muscle tone and body position /motor comands
meninges 3 layers(3) which are? 3 membrane layers /dura mater, arachnoid(&subarachnoid space-not a layer- is cranial fluid there), piamater
cranial nerves are knows by which 2 things roman numerals, and their name
neuropathy nerve disease
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
PET scan positron emission tomography(exposure to radiation ) injected with radioactive glucose
neuralgia nerve pain
bells palsy looks like a stroke but doesnt cause brain damage/face affected but hands completely fine
pH test of how acidic or alkaline urine is
what grows faster in alkaline conditions bacteria and kidney stones
ur/o urine system
albuminaria presence of albumin in the urine/due to kidney disease albumin passes into the urine
catheter/o: catherter
ization: process of inserting
catherterization process where plastic tube is inserted into the urethra and into the bladder
2 types of catheters subrapubic catheter (through abdominal wall) /condom catheter (shaped like a condom
contin/o: hold together
incontinence inability to voluntarily keep urine in bladder
causes of incontinence spinal injury, prostate gland surgery, unconscious, mental health(dementia)
ketonuria ketone bodies in the urine
keton/o: ketones
uria: urinary system
ketones waste products when fat is metabolised
ketonuria is seen in patients with? diabetes mellitus
diabetes mellitus metabolizing fat for energy because cannot metabolize glucose
cutane/o skin
pedicul/o lice
dermat/o skin
integument/o skin
hirsut/o hairy
ankyl/o fuse together / stiff
ankylosing: chronic inflammation of the vertebrae
ankylosing aslo called? spondylitis
spondyl/o vertebrae
radicul/o spinal nerve root
radiculopathy condition where tumor or arthritis are on nerve root
pyel/o renal pelvis
pyelonephritis inflammation or infection of the renal pelvis of the kindey
enuresis involuntary release of urine
melanocytes pigment cells that produce melanin a dark brown or black pigment/
melanin absorbs ultraviolet light from the sun to protect DNA in skin cells
acetylcholine the neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic division
parasympathetic division active when body is eating, sleeping or resting
rest and digest activities related to parasympathetic division
the only connection between right and left sections of the brain corpus callosum
osteoarthritis inflammation/infection of bone joint
ataxia incoordination of muscles while moving/changes in gait /
causes for ataxia brain or spinal cord disease /cerebral palsy /adverse reaction to drug
osteoporosis abnormal thinning of bone structure /when bone breakdown exceeds bone growth
what can osteoporosis cause dowagers hump / pathological fracture
temporal lobe (cerebrum) function analyzes sensory info about hearing
4 lobes of the cerebrum frontal / parietal / temporal / occipital
what does the corpus callosum allow for? two brain hemispheres to communicate and coordinate activities
sprain vs strain sprain ligaments / strain tendons & muscle
concuss/o: violent impact
concussion patient loses conciousness
contus/o: bruising
contusion no loss of consciousness but head was hit or whip lashed
Parkinsons disease due to imbalance in neurotransmitters, dopamine, and acetycholine in the brain
proprioception the unconscious sensing of spatial orientation regarding body position , motion, and equilibrium.
diaphor/o: sweating
diaphoresisand causes profuse sweating /by an underlying medical condition. ie drug withdrawal or a diseas. such as hyperthyroidism or a myocardial infaction