PSYCH 3310 Ch. 6

Question Answer
Initiative vs. Guilt Sense of purpose or guilt
Emotional regulation effortful control, ability to control when and how emotions are expressed.
Positive Resolution healthy exploration
Negative Resolution intense feelings of shame and guilt over interaction and new activities
Dealing with Fears anxieties common in early childhood. Disappear when child gets older
Prejudice feelings of pride lead to feeling superior to children of other sex, nationality, or religion
Intrinsic motivation reason to pursue goal comes from inside
Extrinsic motivation reason to pursue goal comes from need to have achievements rewarded from outside
Play most productive and enjoyable activity children undertake
Imaginary friends friendship in make believe, intrinsic motivation, work for preschoolers
Solitary Play child plays alone, unaware of other children playing nearby
Onlooker play child watches others play
Parallel play play adjacent not with others
Associative play interact, share, materials, and observe each other
Cooperative play play together, creating and elaborating and taking turns
Play with peers one of most important areas to develop positive social skills
Active play participating in fun activity
Rough and tumble play mimics aggression, but no intent to harm, common in young males, may cause injury
Sociodramatic play act out roles and themes in stories they create, learn about selves/world, work out scary and new issues, cultivate emotional intelligence
Discipline method of teaching selfcontrol, right from wrong – instruction or training
Reinforcement reward behaviors
Tangible reinforcement candy, money, stickers
Intangible reinforcement smiles, praise, hug, extra attention
Punishment negative consequence for undesirable behavior
Corporal punishment physical force in discipline, to cause pain but not injure
Spanking specific form of corporal punishment , hitting on backside
Power assertion parent's power over child, discourages unwanted behaviors, not discipline
Time out child separated from people/activities for specified time
Withdrawal of love Parent takes away love and affection, not discipline
Inductive techniques discipline through reasoning, using logic and logical consequences
Diana Baumrind studied parenting styles. Conducted interviews, observations, and home studies. Not exact science
Dimensions of parenting 1. Expressions of warmth 2. Strategies for discipline 3. Communication 4. Expectations for maturity
Authoritarian high behavioral standards, strict punishment of misconduct, and little communication. Withdrawn, disruptive, difficulty with choices
Permissive indulgent high nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance , or control. Immature, lack self-control, irresponsible
Authoritative set limits and enforce rules but flexible and listen to children. Self-reliant, self-controlled, content
Neglectful/Uninvolved indifferent toward children and unaware of what is going on in child's life. at risk for behavior problems, low self-esteem, more impulsive, agressive
Sex differences biological differences between male and females in organs, hormones, and body shape
Gender differences differences in roles and behaviors prescribed by culture for males and females
Sexual orientation person's sexual identity related to the gender to which person is attracted physically/romantically
Gender Identity awareness in early childhood of being male and female, before age 2: know whether they are boys or girls, by age 4: certain toys are appropriate for one gender
Gender stereotypes exaggerated roles of males and females, preconceived ideas about male and female behavior
Gender constancy child realizes gender will not change
Biological Gender stereotype, due to hormonal influences, genetics, and neurological influences
Psychoanalytic child's gender develops due through identification in Phallic Stage
Identification child adopts characteristics of same sex parent by resolving desire for opposite sex parent
Behaviorism gender differences product of ongoing reinforcements and punishments. "Gender-appropriate" rewarded more than "gender-inappropriate" behavior
Social learning notice the ways men and women behave and internalize the standards they observe
Cognitive Cognitively organize and adopt behaviors perceive as consistent with their gender
Gender Schema child classifies behaviors based on society, creates mindset as foundation
Humanism/Hierarchy of needs need affirmation from peers to belong, conforming to gender norms
Evolutionary sexual attraction crucial for basic urge to reproduce. Try to look/act attractive to other sex in gendered ways
Nature Perspective sense of right and wrong, due to attachment, cognitive maturity
Nurture Perspective culture is crucial to the development of morality
Socialization lifelong process of acquiring norms, customs, values mindset
Prosocial behaviors helpfulness/kindness without obvious benefit self
Empathy understanding emotions and concerns of others
Antisocial behaviors deliberately hurting someone, declines with maturity
Antipathy dislike/hatred for other person
Aggression behavior/action with intent to hurt
Instrumental Aggression act to achieve goal not necessarily to hurt, try to get something from another person
Reactive aggression impulsive verbal or physical. retaliation for person's intentional or accidental action
Relational aggression nonphysical acts, to harm social connection between victim and others
Bullying aggression unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack
Sibling rivalry Antagonism between brothers and sisters
Harm Reduction reducing potential negative consequences of behavior
Child maltreatment intentional harm to or avoidable endangerment of anyone under 18 years of age
Reported maltreatment someone has notified authorities of harm or endangerment
Substantiated maltreatment reported, investigated, and verified
Physical abuse injury to body of child
neglect does not meet child's needs
sexual abuse any sexual activity involving child and adult
Emotional abuse psychological mistreatment, causes behavioral, cognitive or emotional disorders
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after person is harmed and unable to protect self neurological, emotional, and behavioral damage
Three levels of prevention Primary – macro-system and exosystem Secondary – Warning signs and intervention Tertiary – everything that limits harm after maltreatment has already occurred
Foster Care home or group home of state-certified caregiver
Kinship Care version of foster care, placed with relative