psych test #4

Question Answer
3 phases of prenatal development germinal, embryonic, and fetal
germinal phase 0-2 weeks following conception- egg and sperm combine into one cell and nucleus on day 1 – zygote
embryonic phase 3-8 weeks, called an embryo-embryo is attached to the uterus- major organ systems begin to develop (heart begins to beat, neural plate occurs, can move toward the end)
at day 17 the neural plate occurs
fetal phase weeks 9-birth- called a fetus (rapid development)- movement, hearing, cognition- weight gain and getting stronger occurs
when does the 20 week ultrasound occur during the fetal phase
when do fetuses begin to hear around 6 months
when does attachment begin before birth, begins with hearing, immediately attached to the mother
why are female infants more likely to survive than male males use testosterone to build muscle mass rather than other structures and parts of their bodies
teratogens harmful substances that affect development (alcohol or drugs)
thalidomide teratogen, was prescription drug prescribed to mothers with morning sickness- created lots of fatalities, missing arms/legs, underdeveloped limbs in the babies
viruses and bacteria food poisoning–> can be fatal to the babyflu–> increases rate of schizophrenia and autism
newborn reflexes grasping, rooting, sucking, stepping. gagging, and moro
grasping reflex holding a finger-can lift baby if they are holding onto your two fingers
rooting and sucking rooting– looking for food (turning head)sucking– how the baby eats
stepping reflex when a baby is held in the air and tilted forward, baby starts stepping
gag reflex prevents choking, often occurs when they first try baby food, doesn't go away
moro reflex regaining balance, if a baby feels like it's falling back their arms whip up into the air
true or false: reflexes never go away false, reflexes disappear and are replaced by purposeful behavior (voluntary actions)
zygotes fertilized egg–> 2 week period of rapid cell division -fewer than half survive the first two weeks-10 days after it attaches to the uterine wall
embryo developing human from 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
placenta life link that transfers nutrients and oxygen from the mom to the embryo
fetus developing human from 9 weeks to birth
full term 40 weeks
development is a slow, continuous shaping process
number of eggs in mother mother is born with all of the eggs that she will ever need
number of sperm that travel to one egg 250 million sperm
fetal alcohol syndrome physical and cognitive development abnormalities in children caused by heavy drinking while pregnant- can leave marks on DNA to turn abnormalities on
increased stress levels can cause increase in hypertension, obesity, heart disease, and psychiatric disorders in babies
habituation decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation – as infants increase familiarity with repeated exposure to stimulus, interest decreases and looks away sooner
maturation biological growth process that enables orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experiences
neurons and babies we are born with the most neurons a person will have
last things to develop thinking, memory, and language
sequences of physical development universal, child crawls before walking
back to sleep position babies sleep on their backs to decrease the risk of smothering -associated with later crawling
when do we start to remember memories -unconscious memories until age 3- by age 7, childhood amnesia wanes
cognitive all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Jean Piaget -began thoughts on cognitive development-children reason differently than adults-mind develops through stages-our intellectual progression reflects an unceasing struggle to make sense of our experiences
schema concept or framework that organizes and interprets info
assimilation interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas
accomodation adapting current understandings to incorporate new information
Piaget's 4 stages sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operation
sensorimotor stage birth to age 2, know the world in terms of sensory impressions and motor activities (object permanance and separation anxiety forms)
object permanence awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived – at 8 months babies notice when objects go missing- babies stare at unfamiliar objects and can detect mass changes
preoperational stage ages 2-6, child uses language but doesn't comprehend mental operations- lack idea of conservation-symbolism, pretend play, theory of mind develops. egocentrism, conservation not yet achieved yet-pretend play
conservation principle that properties stay the same despite changes in formex. transferring milk
ecocentric preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view
theory of mind people's ideas about their own and other's mental states-ability to recognize what behavior gets them a toy-autistic children often lack this ability
Concrete Operational ages 7-11, children gain mental operations that enable them to think logically about abstract concepts-conservation achieved -able to comprehend transformations and conservation-able to pick up on jokes
formal operational begins around age 12, people start to think logically about abstract concepts-ability to form if, then-abstract reasoning and concepts -hypothetical situations
Lev Vygotsky Russian psychologist studied how children think and learn-believe they use words to solve problems and the social environment influences the mind
kids related to adult logic kids are uncapable of adult logic, aren't waiting to be filled with knowledge and cognitive immaturity is adaptive
Autism spectrum disorder appears in childhood and is marked by significant deficiencies in communication and social interaction-often have rigidly fixated interests and repetitive behaviors-impaired theory of mind-struggle to empathize
number of americans with autism 1 in 68increasing rates of autism and decreasing rates of cognitive disability
Aspergers high functioning (intelligence) but lack social and communication skills-more common in boys
children are more likely to have autism if -they are a boy-their older sibling has it
underconnectivity fewer than normal fiber tracts connect the front of the brain to the back -occurs in autism
stranger anxiety fear of strangers that infants display starting around 8 months
attachment emotional tie with another person, shown in young kids seeking closeness to caregiver and showing distress on seperation
critical period optimal period early in life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli/experiences produces normal developmentex. ducks attach to first moving thing, usually mother
imprinting process by which certain animals form strong attachments during lifeex. ducks follow human if first to see move
strange situation experience putting kids in different rooms with or without mothers
insecure attachment cling to mom–> cries loud when leaves -often occurs when mom is unresponsive
tempermant characteristic emotional reactivity and insensitivity
sensitivity tempermant can help train child to increase secure attachment
when does child separation anxiety peak 13 months
basic trust sense that world is predictable and trustworthy -formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregiver
if abused during childhood 30% will abuse their kids-most don't but around 30% do
abuse leaves footprints on the chemical ID tags on genes
self-concept all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, answer to the question "who am I?"-develops around age 12
effects of positive self-concept more confident, independent, optimistic, assertive, and sociable
3 parenting styles authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative
authoritarian coercive–> impose rules and expect obedience
permissive unrestraining –> few demands and little punishment
authoritative confrontative–> demanding and responsive -often increases self-esteem, self-reliance, and social competence
association between parenting styles and childhood outcomes true
drive unpleasant state ex. hunger or thirst
drive reduction theory reducing the drive making someone feel better-meets biological needs
cupboard theory mom is a cupboard that contains food, takes away unpleasant drive of hunger-feeling better-believed this is the way babys attach to mom
Harlow wondered if comfort would be more important-used wire and cloth monkeys
Harlow experiment wire and cloth mothers-wire provides food and cloth provides comfort-monkeys spend 17-18 hours on cloth monkey-when scared goes to cloth mother
why was it a strength to use inanimate objects -control for food and behaviors of real animals-couldn't test comfort in nature because real monkeys provide comfort and food -only way to separate variables: food and comfort
ethics of harlow study -taken from original mother and completely isolated from all other monkeys-couldn't interact with other monkeys–> saw repetitive behaviors
adolescence transition period from childhood to adulthood-begins with sexual maturity ends with social achievement
puberty period of sexual maturation, person is capable of reproducing-sequence of physical change
early puberty in boys popular, self-assured, increased risk of alcohol use
early puberty in girls increased sexual harassment, more likely to hang with older people
frontal lobes develop at age 24-25, teens are more likely to engage in risky behaviors, hard to long term plan, often given lesser punishments in jail due to brain development
moral reasoning thinking that occurs as we consider right and wrong
3 levels of moral reasoning preconventional, conventional, post-conventional
moral intuitions gut feelings or actively laden intuitions -gross looking person –> know to stay away from scary people
punishment is driven by..,. emotional reactions and moral reasoning comes up with ways to describe why we did something
moral actions doing the right thing-depends on social influence
delay gratification pass on small rewards now for bigger ones later on -self discipline is a major part of moral development-basic to future academics, vocational, and social success
Erik Erikson says adolescents search for identity and are influenced by own life
identity sense of self-erikson believed adolescents task is to solidify sense of self by testing and integrating various roles
social identity 'we' aspect of our self-concept-part of the answer to 'Who am I" comes from group membership
intimacy Erikson's theory, ability to form close and loving relationships-primary developmental task in young adulthood-have increased quality from family and friend relationships will have increased romantic relationships
emerging adulthood period from 18 to mid 20s when you're no longer adolescents but have not yet achieved full independence as adults -currently large gap between adolescence and independence
adolescents and parents -typically grow away from parents –> fighting-1st borns fight more-typically fight more with moms-girls fight about relationships and boys about hygiene and behavior-tense relationships with parents and misbehaving teens
parents greatest influence in religion and college decisions
Romanian Orphans prime example of deprivation of attachment-given tons of caregivers and didn't have stranger anxiety-weren't able to attach to anyone-increased levels of anxiety and lower IQ levels
ages of early adulthood 20-30
ages of middle adulthood 30-65
ages of late adulthood 65 and older
physical development -begins to decline in the mid 20s-physical vigor has to do with health and exercise habits-aging decreases fertility-sexual activity lessens with age
menopause time of natural cessation of menstruation -occurs within a few years of age 50
why does sexual activity decrease with age bad health, no desire, and no partner
late adulthood physical develppment -women live 4.6 years longer than men-muscle strength weakens, prints get smaller, reaction time decreases, hearing declines, immune system weakens, pupils shrink, neural processing lag, speech slows
telomeres tips of chromosomes -wears down with age-as they shorten, aging cells die and might not be replaced
exercising and aging it slows aging by increasing energy and strength, preventing heart disease and obesity-increases oxygen to the brain and body
cognitive development -adults recall major events from teens–> 20s (lots of firsts)-early adulthood –>peak time for learning and remembering
younger people tend to remember/recall info better than old people-teens and young adults surpass kids and adults at prospective memories
prospective memory needing to remember to do something -remains strong in old people when events trigger memories-old people often use notes and reminders to remember
brain fitness computer training programs to build mental muscles and stare off cognitive decline-can sharpen mind, doesn't boost overall cognitive fitness
cross-sectional study people of different ages are compared with one another
longitudinal study research when same people are restudied and retested over long period of time
terminal decline 3-4 years before death, major brain decline and negative feelings
factors that damage brain strokes, tumors, and alcohol
neurocognitive disorders marked by cognitive deficits (dementia)-related to Alzheimers, substance abuse, and brain injuries
Alzheimer's disease neurocognitive disorder marked by neural plaques –> often shows up after age 80-progressive decline in memory and other cognitive abilities-memory deteriorates first then reasoning-living death-less common in those who exercise mind and body
symptoms of alzheimers loss of brain cells and deterioration of neurons that produce acetylcholine
social development midlife transition in 40s knowing life will soon be behind and not ahead-some say its a crisis but it isnt
how many adults have a midlife crisis 1 in 4 and due to major life events
social clock culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement-varies era to era-much freer these days compared to the past
divorce rates 1 in 2-hope too much for love, money, caregiver, and intimacy-increase of online relationships
cohabiters people who live together-more likely to get divorced
what dominates adulthood love and work
how to have a successful marriage need to have a 5 to 1 ratio of positive to negative comments
percentage of ppl who marry for money and love 31% for money93% for love
postlaunch honeymoon a period of happiness after the children leave home
life satisfaction declines as death approaches in terminal decline
with age emotions tend to stabilize and become more accepting-less friendships but still enjoy being with people
most difficult separation is death of partner-women tend to experience this five times more
integrity feeling that one's life has been meaningful and worthwhile
personality individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
psychodynamic theories view personality with a focus on the unconscious and importance of childhood experiences
psycholanalysis personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives/conflicts-Freud's ideas
Sigmund Freud widely known and popular-university of vienna, opened practice, and studied disorders-created personality during victorian era –> rules of society were at odds with what people wanted to do-believed on of main issues with mental illness was society
unconscious Freuds idea, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories -motivates our behavior-thoughts and desires we aren't aware of-processing we are unaware of
free association a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind
frued's personality structure id, ego, superego-unconscious mind is below and takes up a lot more space, conscious floats on top
id reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives-operates on pleasure seeking principles (selfish)-seeks immediate gratification
ego largely unconscious, executive part, mediates among demands of id, superego and reality-seeks to gratify id's impulses in realistic ways-reality principle-delays catharsis to maximize wish fufillment and minimize punishment
superego represents internalized ideas and provides standards for judgement and future aspirations-how we know we should behave-moral watch dog and rule follower-internalized social norms (heavily influenced by parents)
psychosexaul stage childhood development when id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones (sexual thoughts)
phallic stage boys desire of their mom and are jealous of dad but fear punishment
oedipus complex boy's sexual desire towards mom and feelings of jealousy and hatred for their rival dad
identification process when kids incorporate parent's values into their developing superegos
gender identity our sense of male, female, or both
early relationships… influence identity, personality, and frailities
fixation lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier stage –> conflicts are unresolved
defense mechanisms ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality-all are indirect and unconscious-anxiety produced between ID and superego
repression basic defense mechanism that banishes consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories-underlies all other defense mechanisms-freud believed this was in unconscious, not true!! we remember vividly traumatic experiences
neo-freudian psychoanalysts that adopted Freud's interviewing techniques and others-behaved greater role of conscious mind and doubted sex and aggression were all-consuming motivations
collective unconscious Jung's concept of shared/inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species history
projective tests personality test, provides stimuli that is designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamicsex. kids see pics as more scary after playing the game murder
thematic apperception test people express inner feelings and interests through stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
rorschach inkblot test widely used, have an inkblot made from pouring ink on paper then told to write down what you see (projective test)-useful to get child to start talking about traumatic issues-not always accurate, not scientific
challenges on repression -humans repress bad things that happen to them-stress increases hormones and enhances memory therefore a person cannot forget the trauma
terrormanagement theory theory of death- related anxiety, explores people's emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death-people act to enhance self esteem and answer questions on life's meaning-facing death aspires us to affirm life
assimilation applying schema to new situation –> often worksex. puling brings things closer
accomodation updating of schema because it didn't workex. new schema formed–> pulling objects brings them closer
schemas typically start broad and then narrow down
Jean Piaget's Cognitive development believed humans form schemas to make sense of the world
conservation video -kids can't figure out amt. stays same (putting juice in different glasses)-spread out quarters, think there's more-think it's fair to cut graham crackers in 2 to be equal when the sizes are different-can't mentally reverse action, think its dif
theory of mind video -kids struggle switching shape and color (kids get stuck on one rule)-juicebox, think juice is inside and rope comes out.. ask what is inside and child says rope-tricking monkey with stickers (kids 18 months or older trick monkey)
modern view of piaget -same order, earlier ages (object permanence at 4 months)-more continuous
due to frontal lobes developing last adolescents are more impulsive and emotional
at age 24 brain is fully developed
action of myelin in brain development -increases speed of action potential-last step is myelination-myelin travels to it's final destination-frontal lobe controls limbic system (impulses and emotions)
humanistic theories view personality with a focus on the potential for healthy personal growth
Abraham Maslow -motivated by hierarchy of needs-studied healthy and normal adults-believed in self-actualization
self-actualization one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical/psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved-motivation to fulfill one's potential
Carl Rogers -person centered perspective (ppl are good and endowed with self actualizing tendencys)-asses personality by quesitonnaires, interviewing, conversations-need genuiness, acceptance, and empathy to grow
unconditional positive regard attitude of total acceptance of other
self-concept all thoughts and feelings about ourselves, answers "Who am I?"-major key to happiness
trait enduring personality characteristic that tends to produce certain behaviors-assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports-traits are a continuum
MBTI Myers-Briggs Type Indicator test that decides if you are a feeling or thinking type-created by Isabel Briggs Myers
factor analysis statistical procedure that's used to identify clusters of test items that tap basic components of intelligence-able to mix into 2-3 dimensionsex. extraversion, emotional stability
personality inventory questionnaire in which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings/behaviors
reactive autonomic nervous system responds to stress with high levels of anxiety
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory most widely researched and clinically used of all tests-created by Hathaway -500 true/false questionnaire that has validity and lie scale-originally used for emotional disorders, now many other purposes
empirically derived test developed by testing pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups-score objectively, doesn't guarantee validity
MMPI-2 asses work attitudes, anger, family problems
big five personality traits conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extraversion
how much of personality is heritable about 50%
influences on personality different sizes of brain regions, culture changes, family life and childhood
Big 5 traits -common worldwide-predict our behaviors
person-situation -personality expression can change depending on the situations/environments-looks for traits that persist over time and across situations-consistency of behaviors form 1 situation to another matters most
in unfamiliar situations we follow social cues and don't show our true traits
why talk about Freud he was very influential and helps us try to understand what happened back then
layers of consciousness conscious, preconscious, unconscious
conscious mind current thoughts
preconscious mind thoughts and info we could activate if needed
how does unconscious surface dreams (psychoanalyst looks at what's going on), behavior (impulsively doing actions and don't know why), and freudian slips (saying wrong word, reveals how you feel
iceberg representation Freud chose iceberg to show mind-unconscious is under water (id, most of superego, and part of ego)-conscious mind is above water
anatomy of a dream -vivid sensations (higher sensory areas are on during REM)-intense emotion (amygdala is activated during REM)-illogical thoughts and uncritical acceptance (prefrontal cortex off)-difficulty remembering afterwards (prefrontal cortex off)
amygdala is associated with negative emotions, people tend to have more negative dreams than positive
prefrontal cortex in sleep off during REM-controls working memory and critical thinking
REM sleep -rapid eye movements-brain is active–>dreaming-twitching-everyone has dreams–> need enough sleep to go into REM-body is paralyzed (motor cortex is active whole time but brain stem prevents message to pass
REM sleep behavior disorder -often happens in middle age to older men –> sign of parkinsons-act out dreams (not paralyzed)-often physical aggression-treatment is to sleep alone in different room with door locked and no furniture
Sleepwalking (stage 4) -surges of autonomic interaction-random arousal increase (activates person to move yet still asleep)-some medications lead to this (sleep binge eating, driving, talking, and walking)
Nightmares bad dreams that people remember -in REM sleep-easier to wake up in REM
Night Terrors no story line, screaming with eyes closed, hard to wake up-typically don't remember -occurs in stage 4
stage 1 of sleep light sleep-just fallen asleep, easy to wake up-only occurs one time in sleep cycle
hypnagogic hallucinations feeling like you're falling, can see some visual images-occurs during stage 1
stage 2 of sleep sleep spindles and k-complex-bursts of brain activity (spindles)–> help you stay asleep in busy environment-big, slow wave (k complexes)–> 1 every once in a while
stage 3 of sleep slow waves begin-lots of delta waves (big, slow waves)
stage 4 of sleep slow waves, deepest sleep-brain begins to rest, not the cortex
what happens when woken up during deep sleep the brain can't immediately function–> feel groggy and confused as to where you are
sleep cycle 1-2-3-4-3-2-REM-repeats every 90 minutes
in the beginning of the sleep cycle deep sleep is more important than REM (spends more time in deep)- brain's main priority is deep sleep
with each cycle of sleep deep sleep (stage 4) now gets shorter-REM sleep now gets longer
impression management lying
positive impression management when a person lies to look betterex. job interview
social desirabilty people want to fit social norms so they lie better-people don't want to admit faultsex. how messy are you?
negative impression management lie/exaggerate to look worseex. cry for help, suing someone for falling that lead to many issues-memory test that looks hard but is easy–> ppl get a lot wrong to look like have mem issues
How can we fix problem of lying? -ask same question more than once-validity scores (ask about minor faults most ppl will admit or the MMPI
if a person has an increased score on the lie scale all results are invalid
Domestic Violence Study -involved men in a custody battle3 groups: documented violence (reported by police), high risk, low risk-took MMPI-thought high risk would have increase lie scale
results and conclusion of domestic violence study -everyone has elevated lie scale scores-in high stakes, even innocent ppl lie (MMPI not scientifically accurate in high stakes)
potential problems with self-report questionnaire -only take 1 time-we view ourselves differently than others-lying to look at oneself better
extraversion personality: outgoing, social, dominantactivities: seeking out distractions, spending time with friends, listening to loud musicArousal: below optimal level
Introversion Personality: quiet, reserved, passiveActivities: keeping distractions to a minimum, being alone, readingArousal: above optimal level
effects of caffinated drinks increases stimulation -if you give an introvert caffeine before a test, they will panic
Optimal arousal -typically in the middle of a curve-not everyone starts at the same place for arousal
negative affect -relates to stress and copinghigh: anger, contempt, disgust, guilt, fear, nervouslow: calmness and serenity
positive affect relates to life satisfaction and level of social activityhigh: energy, pleasure/interestlow: sadness and lethargy
PANAS positive affect negative affect
humanistic perspective positive things, opposite of Freudian theory-Carl Rogers idea
unconditional positive regard unconditional love, no matter what happens you will be ok"You make each day special just by being you. People can lobe you exactly the way you are right now"-Mr. Rogers
positive self-concept lots of overlap between real and ideal self-lots of similarities
negative self-concept not a lot of overlap/similarities between real and ideal self-not very happy with self
freudian theory cons -explains but doesn't predict-theory isn't testable/not falsifiable (can't be proven wrong or right)-legacy of blaming parents ('refrigerator mother')
freudian theory pros -theory attempts to explain a lot of human behavior-some of our mental processes are unconscious (not the way he said–>rather feeling an emotion)-defense mechanisms (except repression)–> protects self-esteem-rationalization
rationalization justifies wrong behavior of one person not all people
refrigerator mother mom's fault that child suffers from mental illness because the mom wasn't emotionally warm enough -no basis for this, not true!
what used to happen when the child went to the doc for autism -separate mom and child-take moms in room to fix them and let kids play
how do all 3 parts of personality work together -id makes demands-superego restricts how demands can be met-ego quiets id but satisfies superego
Veruka Salk case study -wants the squirrel so throws tantrum-dad says ok but wonka says no-goes into pit with squirrels and they attack then push her down the garbage disposal-strong id and weak superego
consequences of strong id and weak superego risky behaviors, don't think of consquences, not very likely
depression increase in NA and decrease in PA
ppl with anxiety can have increased NA and normal PA
when does superego develop at toilet training-first real major demand on an individual from society
libido psychosexual energy (can lead to tension if wishes are unfulfilled)ex. hate boss but don't want to lose job-> hold it in–> uncomfortable tension
catharsis release of that tension when wish is fulfilled or imaginedex. imagine what you would say to boss
how do babies illustrate the id selfish, illogical, want what they want and will cry until they get it -stomach size of marble–>cry to tell us hungry
interpretation of dreams — freud thinking dreams are the royal road to unconscious mind-best way to access unconscious mind
purpose of dreaming –freud -safety valve for unfulfilled wishes–>without this we would explode-method=free association –>person lays on couch not facing him and talks -don't want patients to see reactions and pausing meant hesistation
manifest content what you remember when you wake up, obvious storyline
latent content hidden meaning of dreams
Modern theories of dreaming activation synthesis theory, cognitive view, and stimulate brain development
activation synthesis theory -what happens during REM sleep-brainstem (pons) is activated and sends random messages to the cortex of the brain (makes events into story)-random neural activity-sensory and emotional areas active –>prefrontal inactive
if you think about something all day, neural networks.. are active and newly being formed, typically dream of what happened that day because the recently used neurons are easiest to stimulate
cognitive view -why REM happens-practice for dealing with problems–> ticking noise in class, ticking while sleeping–> did better on next problem-insight can occur–> Otto Loewi-learning/memory consolidation
Otto Loewi -discovered neurotransmitters (acetocholoine)-new neurons weren't touching and chemicals went across, didn't how to make an exp.-dreamt of experiment –> wrote down in sleep and couldn't read his writing-dreamt it a second time and did experiment
learning and memory consolidation -predicts that without REM we would have issues-some substances suppress REM –>alcohol, antidepressants, sleeping pills-they don't allow for REM and these people don't have learning and memory issues
Simulate Brain Development -artificial stimulation from brainstem and pons that goes to brain and creates nerve activityex. baby's spend lots of time in womb without stimulation –>lots of REM-animals (deer) brain almost done at birth–> little REM, and walks at birth
carcadian rhythm -biological clock- 24 hour cycle linked with light and dark cycles-suprachiasmatic nucleus
suprachiasmatic nucleus -in hypothalamus-sleep/wake cycle–> in tune with light and dark-depends on boy temperatures-truly 25 hour cycle, light/dark keeps it at 24
why do we get tired at night? -since it is dark outside, the suprachiasmatic nucleus tells us it's time for bed and makes us sleepy
Why do we need sleep? -recuperation theory and carcadian theory
recuperation theory -stating that a person sleeps to repair their bodies and minds after a long day
circadian theory -internal timing mechanism-helps conserve energy (little animals rest only when sleeping) and to be safeex. humans and large mammals have a cortex that is distinguished as much more important
problem with recuperation theory -don't need to be asleep for this to happen–>growth hormones-cells repair at same time even if you are awake ex. Randy Garnder
Randy Gardner 1960s scientific research project-went 11 days without sleep-zero caffiene used–> games, talked-no physical problems
time that damaged cells repair 3 am
growth hormones -released by humans to prepare for the fast (8 hours of sleep)-most animals don't have them because they get up at night to eat
sleep video -tested to see what happens when REM sleep doesn't occur-easier to make distinctions between words in REM than during the day or other stages of sleep-memory tasks aren't affected by REM loss-understanding material is affected by REM loss