Science ch 1-6

Question Answer
What is geology? The study of the materials that make up Earth and the processes that form and change these materials
What is astronomy? The study of the objects beyond eartha??s atmosphere
What is meteorology? The branch of the earth science that studies the air that surrounds our planet
What is oceanology? The study of the earths oceans, which cover nearly three-fourths of the planet
What are the SI units for each measurement? Length, weight, and mass, area and volume, density, time, temperature
Why is the scientific method important? Scientist use it to discover the rule, from simple to extremely complex, that govern our vast universe
What is cartography? The science of mapmaking
What is latitude? Latitude is the distance in degrees north or south of the equator
What is longitude? Longitude is the distance in degrees east or west of the prime meridian, which is the reference point
What is the equator and where is it on a world map? Equator separates the earth into two equal halves called the northern hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere. The equator circles the earth halfway between the north and south poles
What is the prime meridian and where is it on the world map? The prime meridian is the reference point for longitude. It runs through Greenwich and England
Correct form for a pair of coordinates 27 07a??S, 109 22a??W
What is a topographic map? Shows changes in elevation of eartha??s surface
What are contour lines? Connects points of equal elevation
What is the map legend? Explains what the symbols represent
What does the map scale tell you? It tells you how to measure distances by showing you the ratio between distances on a map and actual distances on the surface of the earth
Name two instruments used for remote sensing? Satellites and GPS
What is an element? A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means
What are the particles that make up the atom and what are their charges? Proton (positive), neutron (neutral), electrons (negative)
What is a compound made up of and give an example A compound is composed of two more different elements that are chemically combined. An example is water H2O
How are covalent bonds and ionic bonds different? Covalent bonds is an attraction of two atoms for a shared pair of electrons and ionic bonds is an attraction force between two ions of opposite charges.
What is a chemical reaction? The change of one or more substances into other substances
What are mixtures? A combination of two or more components that retain their identities
How many types of mixtures are there and what are they? Three- they can be liquid, gaseous or solid
What are the states of matter? Gas, liquid, solid and plasma
How are the atoms arranged in a solid and how close/far apart are they? Arranged in a definite pattern with densely packed particles
How are the atoms arranged in a liquid and how close/far apart are they? Have no definite shape but they take on the shape of the . Particles can slide past each other
How are the atoms arranged in gas and how close/far apart are they? Particles move independently of each other and travel randomly. They are separated by relatively large distances.
How are the atoms arranged in plasma and how close/far apart are they? Consist of electrons that are knocked away from atoms and have positive ions and free electrons
What are the four qualifications for minerals? Naturally formed, inorganic, solid, unique chemical composition.
What are the two ways that minerals can form? From the cooling of magma and when element dissolve in a supersaturated solution
Name three things that can help identify a mineral By color, luster, and texture
How can minerals be useful? Mining and gems
How are igneous rocks formed? Formed from the crystallization of magma
Name two types of igneous rocks Extrusive and intrusive
What is the difference between demain and magic rocks? Felsic rocks are light colored and magic rocks are dark colored. Felsic have high silica content and magic rocks have lower silica content
What is one way that igneous rocks are useful? Granite is used in kitchens because it is durable and beautiful
What is weathering? A set of physical and chemical processes that break rock into smaller pieces
What is erosion? The removal and movement of surface materials from one location to another.
What is deposition? Sediments are laid down on the ground or sink to the bottoms of bodies of water.
What is an example of weathering? When the minerals in a rock are dissolved or chemically charged
What is an example of erosion? When rock fragments have been weathered out of outcrops and then transported to new locations
How are sedimentary rocks formed? When sediments become cemented together
What are metamorphic rocks? A rock that changes form while remaining solid
How are metamorphic rocks formed? When high temperature and pressure combined to alter the textures, mineralogy, or chemical composition of a rock without melting it
Explain the rock cycle The rock cycle happens when a rock is changed into another type of rock. This is a continuous changing and remaking of rocks as they are recycled.