Sociology Exam 2

Question Answer
composed of networks of status positions and the roles/cultural systems associated with those positions Social structure
What is culture? Society's personality;the shared, taken for granted values, beliefs, objects, and roles that guide people's lives
Our own culture is usually _______ to us. invisible
What are the dimensions of culture? Non material and material
What is non material culture? knowledge, beliefs, customs, morals, and symbols that form a pattern of behavior
What is material culture? Physical artifacts and objects created by humans; technical advancements that shape and are shaped by nonmaterial culture.
Global _____ is disappering purity
the interdependency of countries globalization
play a role in linking the worlds cultura system 1. transnational media 2. global communication 3. transportation4. International migration
What are subcultures Values, behaviors, and physical artifacts of a group that distinguish it from the larger culture within which it exists
Examples of subcultures 1. religious groups2. Ethnic and racial communities3. Community organized music or style
What are norms? Social rules developed by humans that guide actions or choicesex. dont pick your nose in public
Sanctions Social responses to conduct which discourages norm violations and serve to reinforce them
Cultural relativism beliefs and practices must be understood within the context of the culture in which they were found
Ethnocentrism the tendency to evaluate other cultures using ones own culture as a standard (ones own culture is superior)
The things that keep us performing our norms More, Folkways, Institutional normsj
More have a strong moral component and are sometimes made into lawex. incest is bad
folkways No strong ethical component; sanctions are mild and informalex. stand during the national anthem
Institutional norms Closely connected to social institutions; change as social institutions change
possibly the most famous sociologist Karl Marx
Born in ______(year) in ________(country) 1818; Trier, Germany
Karl Marx moved frequently due to _______ persecution for his radical philosophical and political writings
Karl Marx's most famous works Das Kapital and Manifesto of the communist party
Who was the first conflict theorist karl Marx
What is conflict theory it attempts to explain human history through the lens of competing classes
"the two marxes" (early career)- idealist and humanist(later career) – Historical materialist
Idealist humanist Marx concerned with human conditions under modernity and how to improve them; concept of alienation
Historical Materialist concerned with class struggle, exploitation, communist theory
Karl Marx's two major contributions to Sociology Theory of Alienation and class
Theory of alienation Enstrangement of people from aspect of their humanity as a consequence of being a mechanistic part of a social class
Das Kapital is how many parts? How many parts did Marx see in his lifetime 3; 1
The second and third versions of Das Kapital were completed by Engels
Main point of Das Kapital labor theory of value
What is the labor theory of value the motivating force of capitalism in the idea that the exploitation of labor, whose unpaid (or underpaid) work is the source of surplus value
is able to claim the right to the surplus because they are legally protected by the ruling regime through property rights The owner of the means of production
The Communist Manifesto main views 1. The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles2. Societies have always taken the form of an oppressed majority living under the thumb of an oppressive minority
Socialization The process by which people learn the values, attitudes, and behaviors that are appropriate and expected by their culture and community
the outcome of socialization the needs of society become the needs of the individual
Agents of socialization Friends, family, peer, etc
Anticipatory Socialization Taught in home during childhood, in anticipation of statuses which may be held in adulthood
the unique set of traits, behaviors, and attributes that distinguish one person from another (capable of reflexive behavior theory of self
Differentiation of self Must learn to recognize ones self as distinct from the rest of the physical environment, including other people
Ability that we are not born with Differentiation of self
Founder of Looking-glass self Clarks Horton Cooley
Looking glass self theory States that our self-image is shaped not only by our direct contemplation of our personal qualities, but also from our perceptions about how we are being perceived by others
Founder of symbolic interactionism George H. Mead
Concerned primarily with "Social Self" Symbolic Interactionism
Pragmatic and heavily involved in Chicago's social and political affairs George H. Mead
Social Self How self relates to others, and developed through interaction
I vs. me me = social self; I = response to social self
developed the building blocks of symbolic interactionism George H. Mead
Symbolic Interactionism micro-level focus concerned with human interactions
Development of role taking Play Stage > Game Stage > Generalized other
Play stage Children cannot shift perspectives
game stage children can understand how they fit into the game as a whole; can understand rules and behaviors
Generalized other children can understand expectations of a larger community; notion that a person has of the common expectations that others have about actions and thoughts within a particular society (almost a conscience)
Role taking Lower class better than the upper class at identifying emotional expressions; those with relatively less power are more attuned to the responses of others
Feral children Where the process of Socialization is interrupted or non existent (Genie Wiley and the wolf-pack brothers_
Resocialization Socialization continues throughout the life course. People learn new values, norms, and expectations (spouse, parent, employee, elderly person)
Total institutions cut off from a wider society (ex. prison, armed forces, monasteries, cults)
Individualistic culture Emphasis on the individual; personal traits and accomplishments
Developed the ideas of total institutions Goffman (1961)
Collectivist culture Emphasis on the collective (kin and community); affiliations and community ties are important; loyalty to group carries a high value
Socialization and Stratification Social class; different values emphasized by class
Social class People who have similar positions in the class heirarchy; Position within the class heirarchy has powerful influence on socialization experiences and outcomes
Lower middle class has an emphasis on ______, while upper class has emphasis on ________ obedience; independence and self direction
Values that track into different rates of educational attainment and occupations held later in life different values that are emphasized by class (doctors are more independent and less textbook
Example where race has an influence on socialization Majorities/minorities and their views on police officers
Sex biological maleness or femaleness
Gender Psychological, social, and cultural aspects of maleness/femaleness
How does gender affect socialization Children learn appropriate male/female interactions through interactions with parents early in life
Gender and childrearing (socialization) Subtle instruction on proper gender behavior (chores, rigidity on males, gender typed activities)
How does education affect socialization Where we learn what is expected by ourselves and of us view notes
How does religion affect socialization helps groups determine from what is right and what is wrong; rites of passage
how does media affect socialization furnishes a picture of reality that can influence norms (violence, gender stereotypes)
Possibly the most influential American Sociologist of all time Goffman
Impression formation Vague idea of who someone is based on available information (clue)
Impression management Everyday life is a series of performances that we (the actors) try to "sell" a particular image of ourselves to other (the audience)
Developed the theory of Impression management Goffman
Dramaturgical reference in Impression management Front stage (audience is present)/back stage (allowed to break character because no one is watching
Props enhance and lend credibility to the performance; ability to manipulate props is important
2 or more cooperate to make an impression for an audience performance team
What forms a successful performance team Trust among members, shared objective, reliability
Who are not good at making good team members children
Where was Goffman born Canada
Developed social interactionism into what we know it as today Goffman
Goffman's most influential work The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life
Goffman used the imagery of the ______ to portray the importance of social action theatre
Goffman claims that all actions are _______ social performances
When the identity one is presenting is suddenly and/or unexpectedly discredited Spoiled identities
Spoiled identities have the ability to destroy? and they are commonly seen as ____ the orderliness of a social interaction and are common; usually a cause of embarassment
Aligning actions Attempts to restore order and minimize damage to the identity
types of aligning actions and what are their purposes Account – after damaging action (excuse);Disclaimer – before potentially damaging/discrediting action
Stigma Permanent spoiling of ones identity that is deeply discrediting and insurmountable
Why is stigma so powerful it cancels out or overshadows other traits or characteristics
What are the 3 types of stigma 1) defects of the body 2) defects of the character 3) membership in devalued social groups
Strategies by non stigmatized people avoidance; pressure the stigmatized to conform
strategies by the stigmatized people 1) hide the stigma 2) selective disclosure of the stigma 3) make light of stigma 4)highlight or draw attention to stigma
Sociology draws attention to the importance of ______ in shaping partner selection, likelihood of marriage, and family arrangments external forces
Exogamy must look outside of certain social groups to find a mate
Endogamy one must choose a mate from within ones group (money, status. power)
majority of us marriagea endogamy
Family definition 2 or more persons who are related by birth, marriage or adopting who live in the same household
household 1 or more people who occupy the same housing unit
Some of the Historical function of family are: education, religion, emotional support, regulation of sexual activity
How have the functions of families changed throughout history In farming times with was functionally efficient to have a large amount of children. now not so much (ag to industry)
Single parent families are predominantly lower class (minorities with low income)
dual earner families children cost 10x as much as they did in the 70s
nuclear family at least one parent and one child
Trends in divorce sharp rise after ww2; decline since the 80s; up by 15% since 2009
Types of marriage 1) monogamy2) polygamy
New couples establish their home apart from parents neolocal
new couple lives with or near wifes family matrilocal
new couple lives with or near husbands family patrilocal
What country has the fastest shrinking rate in the world Japan
Has the power to grant "family rights" laws and politics (government)
following the ruling of the 1996 Defence of marriage act as unconstitutional suicide rate in teens decreased by 7% ; 14% in sexual minorities
Religion in families defines: expectation for dating, marriage, sexuality, responses to death etc
Biggest effecter in divorce/relationship status money
have greater degrees of freedom in employment dual-earner families
Which type of family has significant educational consequences for a child one in which the child has to work