Leadership and its role in the management system

In modern management science, leadership is characterized by ambiguous, but it is possible to single out the following main approaches to its interpretation:
– Leadership is a kind of power, the specificity of which is the direction from the top down, as well as the fact that its carrier is not the majority, but one person (a group of persons);
– this is a leadership position, managerial status, social position related to decision-making;
– is the ability to provide a permanent, leading, priority over others and is not based on the direct use of force, but on the authority (recognition of the legitimacy) of leadership influence;
Is a symbol of community and a pattern of group behavior.
Leadership is the process of influencing a group of people to entail them for joint implementation of managerial decisions to achieve certain goals.
The changes taking place in the world make us take a new approach to the manager’s role in the organization and the “manager or leader” dilemma. One of the researchers of leadership formulated the famous maximum: “Managers do everything right, and leaders do the right things.” To date, this opposition is not obvious, because as the emergence of the innovative function of management emerged the need for the formation of leadership skills.
Based on his professionalism, abilities and skills, the manager concentrates his efforts in decision making, minimizing the options for solving the problem, based on experience, and the leader tries to work out new and ambiguous ways to solve the problem. After solving the problem, leaders take on the risk and burden of the emergence of new problems, especially if it is possible to receive appropriate remuneration. In most, managers have leadership qualities, but in practice they do not.
Management in the organization as a process of interpersonal communication includes the relationship “manager – employee”, as well as all areas of life of individuals, collectives, societies in the state and the state itself. At the same time, those who manage, and those who govern, are in interaction. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the nature of leadership taking into account the interaction between people, since the managed person interacts with the manager.
Modern management is impossible without an individual, innovative approach to changing circumstances in order to achieve new promising areas of development, i.e. management is impossible without leaders. In modern management, leadership integrates the interpersonal factors of an organization to orient them toward the organization’s goals. Management and leadership are not synonymous, but the ability to be a leader is a key condition to become a manager. A leader is someone who manages to turn an employee into a like-minded person or a follower.
The organization can be considered in two aspects: both formal and informal.
Accordingly, it is legitimate to talk about the two types of relations of people (formal and informal) inherent in them, the peculiarities of which are as follows:
1) relations of the first type – official, functional; relations of the second type – psychological, emotional;
2) leadership occupies a special place in the system of formal (official) relations, and leadership is a phenomenon engendered by a system of informal (unofficial) relations. And the role and functions of the manager in the organization are predetermined, and the role of the leader arises spontaneously without its formal definition and description;
3) the head of the team is appointed from the outside, the higher leadership, gets the appropriate authority, has the right to apply sanctions, the leader is nominated from among the people around him who are equal in status (position).
Thus, leadership, management is a social phenomenon in its essence, and leadership is psychological. And in this – the main difference between them, although at the same time there is a lot in common. First, both leadership and leadership are a means of coordination, organization of relations among members of a social group, a means of governing them. Secondly, the manager together with the leader realizes the processes of social influence in the group (team). Thirdly, these phenomena are inherent in the moment of the subordination of relations, which is quite distinct in the activities of the manager and less distinctly – the leader.
According to the concept of power and the theory of the group approach to the activity of the leader, the following main functions distinguish it from the formal leader:
– forms, establishes and maintains standards of acceptable group behavior;
– setting norms, customs, traditions, motivates the behavior of each member of the group, forcing him to follow the standards of group behavior.
Thus, the difference between the concept of a leader and a manager is quite large. Leadership does not substitute for a manager (management), but complements it. The greatest management effect is achieved in a situation where the tools of leadership and informal leadership are concentrated in the same hands. Currently, a good Manager of an organization is a person who is both a Manager and a leader, therefore, effectively manages the organization, its formal and informal environment.