Leadership and Management

The course derives its roots from the basics of organizational management. In order to build a strong footing for learning of the concepts of leadership and team management, we need to understand the concepts of organization. What is an Organization? An organization is a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose, goals e. G. Hospital, profit or non-profit organization, hotels etc. A. Organizations share three common characteristics: (1) each has a distinct purpose; (2) each is composed of people; and (3) each develops some deliberate structure so members can do their work.

Another way to look into this is B. Although hose characteristics are important in defining what an organization is, the concept of an organization is changing. These differences include: flexible work arrangements, employee work teams, open communication systems, and supplier alliances. Organizations are becoming more open, flexible, and responsive to changes. C. Organizations are changing because the world around them has changed and is continuing to change. These societal, economic, global, and technological changes have created an environment in which successful organizations must embrace new ways of getting their work done. D.

Organizations are working in a dynamic environment and are responsible to different stake holders which can be employees, customers, suppliers, Competitors, Government etc. Challenges: Organizations are subject to different challenges. These challenges may be in the form of new trends in the business, changing in the working environment, or technology etc. Every organization has some social entities, has some goals for achieving desired outcomes, and for achieving these goals, organization has specific structures and most important is to link with the external environment. They are not operating in isolation but n a dynamic environment.

The most important entity in any organization is the people, the employees of the organization, who make the organization different from the other organizations. The people of the organization are very important and they work in the organization as different groups/teams e. G. Admit, finance, marketing, Human resources, technical etc. Change in the organization: Change is the true reality of today’s organization. With out change no organization can survive in this competitive environment. Organizational change is defined as any alteration of people, structure, or technology in an organization.

Instead of trying to eliminate change, managers/leaders must realize that change is always present and that they should seek ways to manage change successfully. Forces for Change: Both external and internal forces create the need for change. O Virtual University of Pakistan Leadership & Team Management – MGM 623 A. External forces creating the need for change come from various sources: 1 . The marketplace 2. Government laws and regulations 3. Technology 4. Labor markets 5. The economy B. Internal forces creating change usually originate from the internal operations of the organization or from the impact of external changes.

These internal forces include: 1 . Changes in strategy 2. Changes in the workforce 3. New equipment 4. Changes in employee attitudes Following are the difference between the traditional and new organizations. The Changing Organization Traditional Stable Inflexible J o b -of c u s e d Work is defined by job p o s i it o n s Individual-oriented Permanent jobs Command-oriented Managers always make decisions Rule-oriented Relatively homogeneous workforce Workdays defined Hierarchical relationships Work at organizational facility during specific hours Organizational Performance:

New Organization Dynamic Flexible Skills-focused Work is defined in terms of tasks to be done Team-oriented Temporary jobs Involvement-oriented Employees participate in decision making Customer-oriented Diverse workforce Workdays have no time boundaries Lateral and networked relationships Work anywhere, anytime Note: Most of the characteristics of the new organization are the right requisites for the managers to emerge as organizational leaders. The organizational performance is judge by their profit, effectiveness and efficiency. Productivity An overall measure of the quantity and quality of ark performance with resource utilization taken into account. Performance effectiveness An output measure of task or goal accomplishment. Performance efficiency An input measure of the resource costs associated with goal accomplishment. @ Virtual University of Pakistan 2 Leadership & Team Management – MGM 623 Value creation: Today, value creation is very important notion of an organization by adding some values. What is value added?

It is the relationship between the input & output by using people and get maximum out put. Value is created when an organizational operation add a value to the organization output. Critical Skills for Success in the New Work Place: Excellence: You need to be excellent in any way what ever you are doing and excellent work is done through excellent team of people. Networking: Today’s success is the networking of organization, networking with the peoples and especially with the stakeholders and people who matter.

Entrepreneurship: For Managers/l_traders to be successful skills of entrepreneurship are very critical. In this competitive world, an organization can only survive with good ideas, creativity, innovation and risk taking. Technology: Technology is the back bone of any organization. Each operation depends now on technology. For this purpose organizations are paying a huge cost. Keeping yourself up-to-date with technology is also very important. Decisions of managers/leaders to chose relevant technology for different operations is very critical. Changing Technology a. B. C.

Competitive factors or new innovations often require introduction of new equipment, tools, or operating methods. Automation is a technological change that replaces certain tasks done by people with machines. Computerizing has probably been the most visible technological change in recent years. Marketing: For surviving in this competitive environment one should have wonderful ideas. Marketing is also becoming the critical factor in the success of organizations. Marketing is “getting the right products to the right people at the right price and at the right time place with the right promotion. Workplace Changes: – Belief in human capital Demise of “command-and-control” Emphasis on teamwork Preeminence of technology Embrace of networking New workforce expectations Concern for work-life balance Focus on speed New workplace: In this era, a highly competitive global economy has created unparalleled opportunities and unprecedented uncertainties and smart people and smart organizations create their own futures by applying new ideas, innovation and adopting continuous change.

Companies with a future are committed to people because people are the assets. Also Companies with a future have high performance expectations and provide supportive work environments. High performing companies gain extraordinary results from people. So in this situation smart people and smart organizations 3 Leadership & Team Management – MGM 623 VIC create their own futures and companies are more committed to people as they are the key to successes and also providing the supportive & congenial working environment to them. What is the Role of Management?

Management is more concern about building working relationship with others, help the team members to develop the skills for better performance, providing help to develop team work among them and providing them with a conducive/quality environment for performance and satisfaction. In this connection, management should know that each individual is a value- added worker and if they are satisfied and motivated, organization can achieve their goals efficiently and effectively. Competence for Managerial Success: High reform m ins managers For a manager/leader to be successful; following competencies are required.

He must be good communicator – He should understand Teamwork and foster it among his team members – Understand the concepts of Self-management – Quality of a good leader is very essential – Critical thinking – Professionalism – Crises management – Global management skills Importance for Innovation & Change: -Build working relationships with others. -Help others develop their skills and performance competencies. -Foster teamwork. -Create a work environment that is performance-driven and provides satisfaction for workers. In today’s dynamic workplace, managers can be sure that one thing will remain very important? change.

In order to compete successfully, managers must encourage creativity and innovation among all of the employees in their organization. 4 Leadership & Team Management TO SUCCESS – MGM 623 FOCUSING ON PEOPLE: THE KEY VIC Lesson 02 It is a common saying in today’s organizations that the success depends on people. The ‘people’ of COUrse are the organizational team members and stake holders. Focusing on the right individuals and stakeholders is important for the success of any organization. Today our main focus will be on the people; an actor n organization, the key resources for the success of any organization.

Every organization has some objectives, goals, mission& vision. For achieving these goals & mission, they use different inputs to get desire outputs. The people in different department/position in the organization are the key actors to meet the organizational goals. Only these people can make difference when you compare your organization with the other organization. In today’s environment, getting the latest technology is not a big deal. Even arranging finance is not a problem, if you have a good idea/project. The biggest problem will be to attract/ mind and retain right people.

Any organization can make a difference provided they have right people and organization is managing them well. But it is nor so simple. People and organizations are so complex and remember that every person is different from one and other. So managers/leaders must understand the people, their behavior & situation. One should have target to engage good team to achieve the organizational goals. And keep in mind that good team are only build with a good leadership. Leader is one who motivates the employee and aligns them towards achieving the goals in a better way.

Research tells us hat success comes from putting leadership, people, value, goals, relationship, culture and community first. People in the Process People are the most important asset of an organization. The basic task of a manager is to be people oriented. Poor people management is an important contributor to any failure of organization. It is need of today’s organization to convert the organization from machine based and economically driven paradigm to more people driven, community-based and values-driven. And it will be only done through people working in the organization as a cohesive team.

Importance of HER and Managers Some organizations treat the employees as cost. Basically these organizations are dying organization. We know that employees are the asset and high performing organizations treat people as valuable strategic assets. So managers/leaders must ensure that people are treated as strategic assets. Human Capital Organizations trade in product, knowledge, service, innovation, and relationships. All these things are carried out by people. All organizations use different resources like land, machines, technology, finance, people etc.

But the important resources any organization can depend is the human Resource ND they is the typical human capital organization can be prod off. Why a Human Capital Environment? People are the capital of an organization and create difference with knowledge, creativity and relationship. All this is done by the people. So what does it means? It means “people” must be managed/treated as asset, invest on them and protect them, and not to treat tem as cost. Because human are the unique form of capital. What is Important? The direction of the employees is also important and set the state of mind towards work.

It is also the responsibility of manager/leaders to set the focus of employee in work and engage them with some 5 Leadership & Team Management – MGM 623 IV creative work and motivate them to achieve organization goals. Also create the sense of importance to adopt change. Developing and Sustaining A World-class Workforce Increasingly Diverse Workforce – Diversity will allow us to compete and win locally and globally. Diversity in workplace is very important and brings synergy in the organization. Team members with different backgrounds, with different skill sets and different exposures are very critical and have positive impact.

The Changing Nature of Work – Economy base has moved from manufacturing to services. Keeping in view the changing landscape of the world business, organizations have started thinking and shifting from manufacturing to services orientation. – Job flexibility for employees. With the changing work environment, flexibility in the job is increasing. Organizations are more concerned about out put and delivery rather than time spent by the workers and more flex scheduling is becoming common. – Growth of outsourcing is yet another trend.

Organizations are going for outsourcing most of the secondary tasks rather than doing themselves to improve effectiveness and efficiency. The New Employer-Employee Partnership – Employees can not expect long-term employment – Employers thus can not expect corresponding loyalty – Employers trying to build a new kind of relationship: partnership an employer-employee About the course The course is designed to develop the understanding & knowledge of “the Leadership and Team Management” concepts and the skill sets necessary for performing the team leader functions in today’s dynamic and competitive organizations.

The course will be divided into two main components, the Leadership and Team dynamics. In the first part the main focus will be on Leader, Followers and situation to understand the concept of leadership and in the second half of the course we will try to understand the team dynamics. 6 Leadership & Team Management – MGM 623 LEADERSHIP VIC Lesson 03 Concept of Leadership is very important in organizations because leaders are the ones who make things happen. Without leaders, an organization would find it difficult to get things done.

Leaders mostly help others to learn – just as a coach would help players play instead of playing himself. This lecture introduces students to the concept of leadership and leadership effectiveness by providing irking definitions and by emphasizing the cultural limitations of the concepts. It presents several cultural models that are used throughout the text to explain cross-cultural difference in leadership. There is no universally agreeable definition of leadership. Just go and type “leadership” on Google and you can find more than 186,000,000 different pages of reference on web.

It involves influencing attitudes, behaviors, beliefs and feelings of people and believes to be an important topic. Peter Trucker the guru of Management defines Leadership as “The only definition of a leader is someone who has followers. ” While John C Maxwell defines “leadership is influence – nothing more, nothing less. ” According to John W. Gardner Leadership is “the process of persuasion and example by which an individual (or leadership team) induces a group to take action that is in accord with the leader’s purpose, or the shared purposes of all. Remember Leadership is a process and not a position. This important process has three important components/ingredients. 1) Leader, 2) Followers and 3) Situation. These three components play very important role on the process of leadership. Leaders are those persons who are able to influence others and who possess managerial authority. Leadership, then, is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. Trust is the foundation of leadership.

Leaders develop an environment of trust where the organizational members tend to establish a follower-ship with the leader. Who is a leader? A leader is defined as any person who influences individuals and groups/teams within an organization, helps them in the establishment of goals, and guides them toward achievement of those goals, thereby allowing them to be effective. Characteristics of Successful Leaders Effective and successful leaders have certain characteristics.

They are DOD communicators, they motivate others (team members), they are good team builders, solve problems of others and of organizations, they are good listeners and resolve conflicts, anticipate change and mange it within team and organizations, they encourage risk taking by their team members and also to promote the creativities. If you study the life of successful leaders, you can find them a challenger of the process, they inspire a shared vision, enable others to act, they model the way by showing the path, encourage the followers, act as change agent and take followers to the destination.

Similarly, we also discussed traders of corporate sector who created impression in this world. 9. As G. Candler Coca-Cola 1 . Bill Gates, co-founder of Microsoft 2. Sam Walton, former CEO of Wall-Mart 3. Jack Welch, former CEO of General Electric 4. Lee Iacocca, former CEO of Chrysler 5. Steve Jobs, CEO of Apple 6. Walter E. Disney Walt Disney 7. Henry Ford Ford Motor 8. William C. Procter Procter & Gamble 10. Michael Dell, founder of Dell Computer 11. Andy Grove, former CEO of Intel 12. Ted Turner, founder of CNN 13. Jeff Bozos, founder of Amazon. Com 14. Phil Knight, CEO of Nikkei 15. Lou Serener, former CEO of IBM 16. Robert W.

Johnson Jar. Johnson & Johnson 7 Leadership & Team Management – MGM 623 IV Think of someone in your life whom you would consider as “Leader”. What are the qualities of character that this person has? I try to enlist few important characters that person “leader” may have.. Honest, trustworthy Good role model Caring Committed Good listener Treats people with respect Positive, enthusiastic Risk taker Planner Decision Maker Consistent Open Accountable Transparent Responsible Sensitive Connected to the Community Knowledge Wisdom Social Skills Are we born with these qualities or are they learned behaviors?

To some degree we have all of them -some more so than others. We must choose and work to strengthen these qualities in ourselves if we are to be effective leaders. Do we really need leaders? Consider how life would be different without leadership in e. G. Families, Education, Businesses, Service Associations, Teams, Countries and World. Why Study Leadership? Understanding leadership helps organizations: – – To select the right people for leadership positions To train people in leadership positions to improve to improve their performance Who benefits?

Leaders, followers, organizations and society as a whole. VIC Lesson 04 – MGM 623 LEADERSHIP (CONT’D. ) We will continue discussing the concepts of leadership. If you check dictionary for definition of Lead, Leader and Leadership you will find the following answers. Dictionary Definitions:Lead: “To guide, steer, pilot, point, or show the way”‘ “To cause someone to do something” Leader: “One who leads” “Person in control” Leadership: ‘The quality notable in leaders” “Set of characteristics that make a good leaded’ Leaders are Effective When?

Leaders’ effectiveness depends on the achievements of group/team goals, when internal processes are smooth and rope/team is working as a cohesive team. Effectiveness can also be seen when team/group adapt to external forces. An organization achieves its goals when the leaders of an organization will be more effective. A leader is effective when team/group is effective and vice versa. Leader and followers are both important and depend on each other for effectiveness. Can a leader fail? Yes, some time we see leaders who are not effective or not-good do fail in achieving their goals.

Characteristics of Leaders Who Fail Rude and unapproachable: if the leader will act rudely and is unapproachable to employee. He will fail to achieve organizational goals because due to his/her this behavior participative environment can not created within organization. Cold and arrogant: if the leader will be proud of himself, no one wants to work with him. And also if he or she has no feeling about others, nobody will be agreeing to work with this type of arrogant person. Untrustworthy: without trust, leaders can not perform well in the organization.

Teams/Groups/Organizations always grow when they have trust on each others and a trustworthy leader is very essential for the success of a team. If leader is untrustworthy, the probability of his/her failure will be sigh. Self-centered and political: if the leader will create or involve in political environment in the organization, he/she will lose the ground because politics can not work in the organization especially if leader is involved in political activities. Especially when a leader is self centered and interested only in personal benefits the result will be a mess and failure and out put will be zero.

Poor performers: Team always depends on its leader. Leader is mentor, role model, coach and sets the example for others. So if the leader of team will be poor performer, team can not achieve the goals. Unable to delegate: In this competitive environment of participations, the leader must delegate the power and authority to downwards for achieving the organizational goals in more efficient and effective manner. So if the leader will not delegate the power and authority to others or his subordinates, he will lose and that will be the failure of leader. W why Leaders Fail? – MGM 623 Insensitive, abrasive, bullying style C old, aloof, arrogant Betrayal of personal trust O every am obvious Specific perform once problem s M Cicero-m managing? does not build a team U enable to select good subordinates So are they “bad” “in-effective” Leader? Bad leadership defined “Bad leadership falls into two categories: bad as in ineffective and bad as in unethical. Ineffective leadership fails to produce the desired change while unethical leadership fails to distinguish between right and wrong. – Barbara Keller – What do we mean by “bad” if a person (leader) is Corrupt, Evil, Brutal, Disrespectful, Incompetent, Irresponsible, Destructive Unethical, Mean, Dangerous, Immoral or Ineffective than one can say he/she is a bad leader. Bad leadership defined “Ineffective leadership is the inability to build and maintain a group that performs well relative to its competition. ” – Robert Hogan – Causes of bad leadership There are two key sources which are Traits and character. “Leaders behave badly because of who they are and what they want. – Barbara Keller Leadership is not automatic it must be earned through trust, confidence, competence, consistency, integrity, and vision Leadership Managerial Roles In this competitive environment the style of management has also changed. Now the organizations are working in more competitive environment, more flat structures, depends on more functional teams lead by leader. Managerial Roles Leaders are managers too but not necessary that all managers are leaders. Leaders need to play managerial role too.

Management roles refer to specific categories of managerial behavior. A. Interpersonal roles included figurehead, leadership, and liaison activities. Figurehead When they represent the organization, signing official document, informally talking to people and attending out side meetings, presiding the meetings and ceremonial events etc they are playing the role of figurehead. 10 Leader Leader is responsible for giving instruction, coaching, hiring, training, titivating, and evaluating performance etc and these are responsibility of a leader.