Production-centered managers – set rigid work standards, organized asks down to the last detail, prescribed work methods o be followed and closely supervised their subordinates’ work Employee-centered managers – encouraged subordinate participation in AOL setting and in other work decisions and helped ensure high performance by inspiring trust and respect most effective leadership Most effective leaders were those who had supportive relationships with their subordinates, tended to use group rather than individual decision making, and encouraged their subordinates to set and achieve high performance goals.
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Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton Studies) developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton identifies 5 different types of management behaviors based on the various ways that task-oriented and employee-oriented styles can interact with each other
Style 1 (impoverished management) – low concern for people, low concern for tasks or production laissez-fairer management – leader abdicates his or her leadership role Style 1 ,9 (country club management) – high concern for employees, low concern for tasks Style 9,1 (task or authoritarian management) – high concern for production and efficiency, low concern for employees Style 5,5 (middle-of-the-road management) – an intermediate amount of concern for both production and employee satisfaction Style 9,9 ( team or democratic management) – high concern for both production and employee morale and satisfaction ; most effective leadership behavior
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Wahoo. Yuan Lang, bye. =) FCC aka, SORRY pop let. :)))) System 4 Management Reins Liker, incorporating the basic style categories of task orientation and employee orientation, devised his own model of management effectiveness. Four Leadership Systems System 1 characterized as exploitive and authoritative Managers make all work-related decisions and order their subordinates to carry them out. Failure to meet the managers’ goals results in threats or punishments. Managers have little trust or confidence in subordinates.
Subordinates fear the managers. System 2 benevolent authoritative Subordinates who meet or exceed the managers’ goals may be rewarded. Managers have a condescending attitude toward their subordinates and subordinates are cautious when dealing with their managers. System 3 consultative Managers set goals and issue general orders after discussing them with subordinates. Subordinates can make their own decisions about how to carry out their tasks. Rewards are used to motivate subordinates.
Subordinates feel free to discuss most work-related matters with their managers, who, in turn, feel that to a large extent subordinates can be trusted to carry out their tasks properly. System 4 participative Likelier final and most favored management style Goals are set and work-related decisions are made by group. To motivate subordinates, managers not only use economic rewards but also rye to give their subordinates feelings of worth and importance Performance standards exist to permit self-appraisal by subordinates, rather than to provide managers with a tool to control subordinates.