Leadership and Organizational Change Worksheet

Although each department has a unique and important role within the operations of Crystal, it is important for leaders to unify or laterally create a lance through equity in programs for change. Disparity may be perceived on how a department such as Technology Operations has a more refined system for conflict resolution and allows liberties in the decision making process rather than the Marketing or Sales departments. The “grass is greener” perspective from the employee must be refocused that everyone has an equal and shared opportunities within the organization.

Furthermore, it is the responsibility of the leader to assess the working environment to ensure negative and positive equity does not persist, and appropriately use organizational justice to minimize the effects. 2. Expectancy (motivation to behave in ways that produce valued outcomes). In identifying each department needs to improve, using this model can determine the amount or level of work (by motivation) the employee will perform through logical results.

After reviewing Crystal’s weak performers and implementing methods for change, it can be determined that the Marketing department although not by much, still did not meet the expectations for results in change. Using the theories of the model (Broom) in assessing the department, the leader could probably assess the level of effort probably needs to be changed o increase the level of outcome. Also, instrumentality can be important to develop change for the Marketing department with training and mentoring. Therefore, the leader should determine the valence levels of the employees respective to the organization. 3.

Goal Setting or Management by Objectives (MOB њ participation in decision making, goal setting and objective feedback). This method can be used to enhance performances with each department in order to achieve desired results. For instance, the annual performance reviews conducted by the Sales and Delivery department can establish the MOB D erecting one’s attention CLC using the SMART format for their employees and follow up at scheduled events or with milestones D regulating one’s effort. Persistence can followed up in keeping the group focused on the objective, and making the objective a part of their personal goals.

Finally, goals encourage and develop dynamic strategies and plans to achieve results. Feedback and effective communication is required to understand the level of commitment and determination processed to accomplish the goal, and to develop initiatives to ensure the success. Each one of these models are distinctive strategies to solicit costive motivational responses in supporting the organization towards the goal, however, each method seems dependent with another in moderation to be exceptionally effective.

Task B: Theories of leadership Instructions for Task B: In the Response row, identify three leadership theories and explain how a leader might use each of the theories in implementing the change initiative at Crystal. Be sure to cite your sources. Response to Task B: 1 . Feedback. This aspect can be tailored to each department on their performance in the past and after change was initiated. With feedback group and individuals an be assessed on how their performance measured to the goals or desired changes required by the organization.

This assists as a tool to identify measures needing to be corrected and those efforts used which are working. It is important for the leader to identify substantial positive feedback more so than negative to effectively enhance to develop performance measures. Since feedback is an important aspect in developing employees and groups, it equally important of knowing when and where to provide feedback. Seeing feedback as an effective tool in affecting behavior, attitudes and motivation, it is equally important not too abuse or loose trust with feedback.

The Marketing team undeniably needed the leadership to provide feedback to the personnel and allowing them to understand the situations, solicit upward feedback apart from the surveys, and determine necessary actions required in developing the group. 2. Extrinsic Rewards. Upon reviewing the situation with Crystal, it is the leaders responsibility in determining appropriate methods and rewards system necessary to keep the employee motivated and focused to the objectives (reward equity versus reward equality norms).

It is also necessary for the leader to seek a lance in providing a rewards program without sinking into the extrinsic reward pitfalls. A possible solution to provide motivation to the two departments t] Marketing and Sales t] having lackluster results WOUld be team-based pay. Ensuring the collective motivates each within the team to achieve the desired results towards change. Extrinsic rewards are effective as a tool to motivate but too much can lead to the pitfalls briefly identified (8-reasons discussed in chapter 10 of Organizational Behavior).

Therefore, the emphasis is determining the balance of extrinsic rewards with intrinsic rewards and ensuring these methods re congruent to the individual and team respective to the goals of the organization. 3. Positive Reinforcement. Because both feedback and extrinsic rewards do not provide all the answers to effectively motivate employees, these techniques coupled with positive reinforcement assist to develop a more healthy and sustained plan in change. The reinforcement model must be carefully reviewed to determine the applicability and appropriateness of type (negative versus positive) to ensure effectiveness.

Generally situation and environment will determine the applicability of negative reinforcement over positive enforcement. Delivery and scheduling of positive reinforcement is equally important in order to obtain optimum results. Like understanding the appropriate time to schedule a time out in sports, timing and frequency (continuous and intermittent) of reinforcement relative to the other methods, feedback and rewards is required reach the desired end-state. In the Crystal organization, positive reinforcement could be applicable during all phases and more emphasized during progression in each department.

Again, it is imperative that each leader understands the development of their department by each teeth and comprehends the right mix and order to ensure success for the group and the personnel assigned. Task C: Leadership skills and competencies Instructions for Task C: In the Response row, identify the skills and competencies that a leader would need in order to effectively implement the three leadership theories identified in Task B. Be sure to cite your sources. Response to Task C: 1 . Objectivity.

First, a competent leaders needs to objectively assess the situation and realize the processes and methods necessary to achieve results congruent to the organization’s mission and the needs/desires of the employees. Without objectivity, the leader can be blinded of how to effectively employ motivational and inspirational techniques to support the program in leading change. 2. Credibility and trustworthiness. Simply stated, that credibility is necessary to gain the confidence of the employees and peers to effectively implement change.

This is specifically important in positive reinforcement. Without the confidence gained with credibility, this tool has no benefit or value for either the employee or the organization. 3. Justice with judgment. Is elemental in understanding how to measure and assess punishment and rewards. Specifically in rewards, a just leader must determine which extrinsic rewards are adequate or appropriate to sustained valued enthusiasm and commitment to the goals. The just leader must also understand the balance between the reward program relative to goals, personnel and other methods of motivation. . Communication. This element is always a key in leadership in various facets. Understanding how to effectively communicate goals, ideas, information and be able to professionally interface with employees is essential for dynamic change. Task D: Critical success factors for organizational change Instructions for Task D: In the Response column, identify three critical success factors for the change initiative at Crystal. Explain why each of the factors you’ve selected is critical. Be sure to cite your sources. Response to Task D: 1.

Participative Leadership (creating interdependency by empowering, freeing up, and serving others). Ideally this is one the principle initiative Crystal can effectively use for transformational change in all phases of operations. One of the key issues identified for Marketing group was the lack of teamwork being spread through the country. Participative leadership could assist in bringing back focus and putting the team back on track by empowering lower level management to achieve results based on objectives and milestones.

Possible considerations for this technique are coordination and communication to all the teams and monitoring the progressive results. Although this may appear a challenge, the possibilities could be limitless with diverse and creative leadership approaches. 2. Aligned on Purpose. To keep the distinction and departments together, this technique is appropriate to ensure autonomy but cohesiveness as an organization. This technique not only serves Crystal at a higher echelon, but also develops teams at the lowest echelon to understand task, purpose and organizational goals.

Once the individual and team become aware of their importance, perhaps the unit becomes a willing resource for the organization. Without align on purpose, the team does not conceptualize their role within the organization and in general produces lackluster results or ranks low with job satisfaction as identified through the surveys (61%). 3. High Communication. In review of the surveys for Crystal, communication ranked at 62% overall. This average appears low without having to benchmark against other similar organizations. Communication was identified the lowest in both Marketing and Sales departments respectively.

It is the responsibility of a leader to maintain open channels of communication between employees and management, as well as to create a positive working atmosphere based Upon mutual trust. High communication is absolutely necessary in understanding and identifying the needs of the employees and being able to adequately provide feedback and positive reinforcement. Without high communication, productivity and lack of Ochs occurs within the environment as a whole and the concept of change fails, whereas crises management occurs to regain trust at all structured levels.

Task E: Change Catalysts Instructions for Task E: The current change initiative at Crystal is a result of new technology. In the Response column, identify three non-technological change catalysts that could force Crystal to implement further changes in the next three to five years. Be sure to cite your sources. Response to Task E: 1. Leading by Example. In the Crystal model, it was determined that leading by example was en aspect to influence change by creating urgency through specific objectives and allowing employee participation in problem solving (congruent to participative leadership approach as determined earlier).

In reviewing results of the survey, the leader can provide and define specific performance objective to focus and improve productivity for the organization. To add, allowing the employees to participate in the decision process allows them to gain ownership to the tasks. Leading by example is essential with all organizations, it develops confidence and shows the groups the leaders commitment to the goals and the organizations itself. 2. Empowering Teams. In review of problems identified initially, this was the ideal plausible coarse of action specifically for the Marketing teams, which were spread out in the country.

Empowering each team and creating urgency through specific objectives, this inspired the teams in giving back job satisfaction. For the Sales and Delivery department, this enhanced the confidence levels from the individual to the teams relative to the paradigm of the department in defining job roles and responsibilities. Empowerment is a functional tool in developing confidence and commitment with objectives. Although empowerment is an ideal tool in developing subordinates and teams, the leader must maintain active vigilance to provide effective feedback and positive reinforcement. Resistance in this model is generally low, probably because it also allows independence and creativity to occur). 3. Mentoring. Is the most ideal aspect of these three models. It shows trust and commitment to the employee to enhance performance and skill in achieving success. Realistically, the mission or objective is principally the priority for the leader, the employee are the long-term investment to sustain the mission. Mentoring allows the leaders to develop trust and credibility among the employees towards shared goals.

With the Crystal problem, the Marketing team structure had to redesign their mentoring program to support the teams which were spread out, whereas the Sales and Delivery department required the same vision in a different perspective. Identifying and appointing mentors is one of the many responsibilities of a leader to progressively move forward and identify methods in problem solving. Through mentors the leaders can anchor new approaches in the culture and reinforce new behaviors and successes.