Organizational Culture and Leadership

This report has been compiled as a group assignment under continuous assessments for BUS 4304 – ‘Organizational Culture and Leadership’, a subject which is followed during the Semester 1 of the 4th Academic Year for the Bachelor’s Degree – Business Administration (Special) offered by the University of Sir Grandparents. As per the guidelines given, this report consists of two parts. Part I discusses the cultural aspects evident in a known business organization, the Imperial

College of Business, most popularly referred to as SIBS among the present and past students engaged in the examinations offered by the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (COMA). The background, nature and components/ characteristics observed within SIBS which form its unique culture that consists of several sub-cultures have been the basis of Part l. Part II of the report discusses the background factors, characteristics, leadership styles, motivational and inspirational skills observed in world renowned great leader, the late Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States of America USA).

This part has been compiled referring to several biographies and other information related to him. Part I Imperial College of Business Studies (ICES) Background of the Organization SIBS has established itself as a leading business school in Sir Lank and a premier COMA tuition provider. It is currently one of the fastest growing education providers located in the border of Colombo 03 and Colombo 04. SIBS has a student population of about 1,000 and that number is continuously growing. The success of SIBS is due to their stance towards ensuring success at examinations ND providing students with a holistic approach to learning.

Its organization structure comprises of a Board of Directors (BODY); Divisional Heads taking the responsibilities in Candy, Gerundial, Japan and Battalion branches; Administrative staff and a vibrant team of lecturers of whom some represent the BODY The SIBS Staff is a team of highly dedicated and experienced individuals whose service to current and prospective students. The team is passionate about assisting students and remains guided by one basic principle: they put the needs of students first and ensure that they are ready to pursue their studies infidelity and professionally.

SIBS operates with having a vision statement of “Nurturing TomorroWs Leaders”. This has been supported by the possession of lecturers and staff with several years of industry and teaching experience, in order to ensure that students are furnished with not just the basics. Nature and the Culture of the Organization The subcultures identified within SIBS are discussed with the aid of basic components of culture which consist of several factors mentioned under the following categories: 1.

Ideas, Attitudes and Values The ideas, attitudes and values of SIBS have been blended and molded tit their belief, ‘The difference between failure and success is doing a thing nearly right and doing a thing exactly right’. Thus they drive towards doing things exactly right by guaranteeing excellence at COMA examinations through classes that ensure personalized attention and care for every student, a comprehensive coverage and revision plan, a flexible course structure, outstanding teaching facilities and modern teaching methods.

Therefore, attitudes develop from the top to bottom in the cognitive substructures and support to ensure the client satisfaction with consistence in every service they look for. Thus they have been able to intimately comply to a moral and ethical conduct of the business, which is proven through the accreditation awarded by COMA (I-J) as a ‘Learning Partner Institute’ in 2004 for the ICES, making it one of the first institutes in Sir Lank to receive this prestigious status, assuring the highest quality of delivery.

In addition to the above, SIBS has also received the ISO 9001:2000 certification for its superior quality management system. 2. Strong and/or Weak Personal Roles within the Culture Analysis of Cultural aspects of Imperial College reflects a culture which is an assortment of strong academic culture. SIBS has a strong culture which almost all the employees across all divisions hold based on the core principles of the organization in achieving the corporate goals.

Thus it has enabled to increase the organizational performances over the years even with the high competition existing in the professional education industry in Sir Lank. The academic culture present at SIBS usually facilitates prize winners who have joined their panel of lecturers and staff to start from the bottom and to climb the ladder by being with the organization throughout, which is confirmed y the evaluation on career paths of the BODY. Typical examples in support of this would be the current Managing Director Mr.. Parthian Aircraftman and the former Managing Director Mr..

Rave Mandrake. The BODY of SIBS exhibit strong personal roles and have been able to transfer their passion throughout the company. Their beliefs and expectations have produced norms that have powerfully shaped the behavior of individuals and students as professionals. 3. Behavior Patterns The SIBS Staff is a team of highly dedicated and experienced individuals whose service to current and prospective students is unmatched. Their behaviors and attitudes are guided by the theme of ‘We look forward to serving you and providing you with a supportive and friendly service’.

Therefore, they operate as a team rather than as an administrative staff, thus are passionate about assisting students and remains guided by one basic principle: they put the needs of students first and ensure that students are ready to pursue their studies confidently and professionally. Team Behavior: In offering helpful information for students; on registrations, subjects on offer, subject selection, study methods; staff is easily accessible via arsenal visit, phone call or email because members of staff including Executive Directors will take any of other persons duty at a request, if it is to serve a client.

Self-discipline: The staff at SIBS from Executives to Cleaning personnel do not have a very strict time schedule such as 8-5. The only thing that the company expects is the work to be done whenever necessary. Hence their control and monitoring has been developed through a reporting system based on targets and feedbacks taken from stakeholders including students, parents, suppliers, bankers, members of the COMA Sir Lank Division etc.

This has guaranteed that once a student begins his/her COMA career with SIBS or a third party becomes a stakeholder, they will always be given the priority and focus by understanding and matching their ever-changing needs in this dynamic environment. 4. Norms Group norms are the informal rules that groups adopt to regulate members’ behavior. Norms are characterized by their evaluative nature; that is, they refer to what should be done. Norms represent value judgments about appropriate behavior in social situations.

Although the norms at SIBS too are infrequently written down or even discussed, arms have powerful influence on the behavior of the staff. For example, there is no hard and fast rule for employees to report to work by 8. 00 a. M. And leave at 5. 00 p. M. But every employee is disciplined to report to work on weekdays before 8. 30 a. M. Since classes commence at 8. 30 a. M. Even though that is the norm or the practice on weekdays every employee knows that they have to report to work on weekends by 7. 30 a. M. Since classes commence by 8. 0 a. M. If each individual in the organization decided how to behave in each interaction, no one would be able to predict the behavior of any group member; has would reign. Norms guide behavior and reduce ambiguity in groups. Same way, at SIBS absence or leave of an employee is communicated to all the subordinates and the manager via e-mail or short messages (SMS). Organizations or Groups do not establish norms about every conceivable situation but only with respect to things that are significant to the group.

Similarly, SIBS has many norms to ensure the smooth functioning of the organization. One such norm is that whoever handles the inquiry relating to registrations is responsible for the receipt of payment and updating the system. Norms might apply to every member of the group or to only some members. Norms that apply to particular group members usually specify the role of those individuals. A norm at SIBS is that front office staff who deals with the student affairs never leave the office without letting at least one person to look into the matters.

Understanding how group norms develop and why they are enforced is important to managers. Group norms are important determinants of whether a group will be productive. A workup with the norm that its proper role is to help management will be far more productive than one whose norm is to be antagonistic to management. . Ceremonials and Rituals It has been recognized as a fact that concentrating only on achieving multiple goals and objectives will not actually help achieving the same. Therefore the significance of ceremonials has received little attention in organizations.

SIBS, as a multicultural organization, finds opportunity to have many ceremonial functions. One such function that would definitely take place is the Kinshasa and Tamil New Year celebrations, which give the chance to do all the rituals that, come under both Kinshasa and Tamil cultures. Since rituals are a set of actions prescribed by a religion or by the traditions, he rituals that come with different ceremonial functions have strengthened mutual understanding and the ability to respect different beliefs and practices of peers working within SIBS.

Christmas Carols and Weak Backchat-gee programmer at SIBS have given lots of strength to the organizational culture and it has indirectly helped achieving the organizational objectives effectively and efficiently. 6. Symbols and Symbolic Actions Symbols are integral to organizational life. They are not simply by-products of an organization, but rather elements that structure members’ sense, knowledge, and behavior. One such symbol at SIBS is the display of banners and billboards. They generally symbolize the students and convey the messages that that institute is proud of their achievements.

Also the car park being occupied by all the lecturers and Directors means that there is an effortless opportunity for a general meeting of all employees of the organization irrespective of the position they hold. One symbolic action that one can experience at SIBS is the complete silence at its premises when there are mock examinations going on. Likewise, interpretation of symbols and symbolic action in an organization helps understanding many hinges that are not put into words. 7. Ethical Codes The ethical codes could be divided into two sub-categories, namely as business and social ethics.

Business Ethics: Globally there is a growing need for well-trained and educated professionals who bring more than just the basics into their work environment. Employers are constantly seeking graduates who are employable. Thus SIBS is an institution which goes an extra mile by providing students constantly with the tools they need to adapt and excel in a complex and constantly changing world and guiding them throughout to ensure that students re molded into employable candidates with a sound education.

Therefore with high pass rates consistently maintained by the institute as a result of the high standards of education and the quality of service, the past students of SIBS are holding well remunerated senior jobs both locally and overseas. Social Ethics: As an ethical corporate citizen, to uplift the standards of business education in the country, SIBS with high parallel dedication and commitment provides an equal standard in service and quality in education in all their branches regardless of low competition present in outstation, even by aging some lectures to those branches weekly from Colombo.

It is because they believe that every student, irrespective of the community they belong to, should be served equally to sit for a UK examination as a Sir Lankan candidate with a highest competence level in order to maintain the pass rates of the country as a whole. Further, SIBS offers some scholarships for the students who achieve good results in OIL and AIL if they not financially secured to take up the Professional Education. This has resulted in bringing honor to Mother Sir Lank by producing world prizes and excellent business leaders. Distribution of Power and Status Directors at SIBS are not operating with a personalized power motive and they do not act with vigor and determination to exert their power. Thus a dominant culture where managers seek power mostly for their own interest is not visible within the organization in general. Socialized power motive: Use of power at Director’s level is primarily to achieve organizational goals and to serve the stakeholders at their request whenever necessary. Therefore high accountability given on targets has made employees emotionally mature to correct their mistakes before they are being devised by the managers.

Managing Director: SIBS shows a high level of power diminution throughout the organization hierarchy as a cause of the organizational culture and Managing Director’s values and believes with veteran experience. Therefore, in common, all Executive Directors operate with balance of power and status. However, natural concentration of power and status around the Managing Director is present due to his strong personality and ability in problem-solving. Further, the Managing Directors knowledge of business with high technical competencies and as a reputed tutor in global professional education has exulted in everyone looking for his advices.

Thus more as a leader with capacity to insight into people and situation, farsightedness and openness to experience has resulted in surpassing the business objectives over time even in a highly competitive professional education market, while adhering to corporate governance and ethics. —End of Part I– Part II A Great Leader: Abraham Lincoln Personal Details Name in Full: Abraham Lincoln Born: on February 12, 1809 at Sinking Spring Farm in southeast Hardin County, Kentucky (now Large County), USA Died: on April 15, 1865(1865-04-1 5) in Washington, D. C. USA Known for: being the 16th President of the United States (March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865) Parents: Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Lincoln (n©e Hanks) Sibling: Sarah Grisly (older sister) Wife: Mary Todd Lincoln – married on November 4, 1842 Children: Four sons – Robert Todd Lincoln (1843-1926), Edward Baker Lincoln (1846-1850), William “Willie” Wallace Lincoln (1850-1862), Thomas “Tad” Lincoln (1853-1871) Background Abraham Lincoln grandfather was a substantial landholder. After his death, as the eldest son, by law; Lincoln uncle Moroccan inherited his grandfather’s entire estate.

Hence his father Thomas was a poor but respected citizen of rural Kentucky who owned Sinking Spring Farm in southeast Hardin County, Kentucky (now Large County) where Lincoln was born. Lincoln family belonged to a separate Baptists church, which had high moral standards and opposed alcohol, dancing, and slavery. At the age of nine Lincoln mother died and he was raised by his stepmother Sarah Bush Johnston to whom he then called ‘Mother’. He associated his family very closely and observed the customary obligation of a son to give his father all earnings from work done outside the home until age 21.

In 1840, Lincoln came engaged to Mary Todd, who was from a wealthy slave-holding family in Lexington, Kentucky and married on November 4, 1842. The Lincoln had a budding family, with the birth of Robert Todd Lincoln in 1843, and Edward Baker Lincoln in 1846. However, Robert was the only child of the Lincoln to live past the age of 18. Edward Lincoln died on February 1, 1850, in Springfield, likely of tuberculosis. The Lincoln’ grief over this loss was somewhat softened by the birth of William “Willie” Wallace Lincoln nearly 11 months later, on December 21.

However, Willie died of a fever at the age of 11 on February 20, 1862, in Washington, D. C. , during President Lincoln first term. The Lincoln’ fourth son, Thomas “Tad” Lincoln, was born on April 4, 1853 and outlived his father, but died at the age of 18 on July 16, 1871 , in Chicago. Abraham Lincoln was as affectionate father. Therefore the grief of the death of his sons had profound effects and led him to suffer from “melancholy,” a condition which now may be referred to as clinical depression.

The beliefs, attitudes and tragic circumstances of his family formed the basis for Lincoln values which gave him the guidance and courage to lead his country through its greatest internal crisis, the American Civil War and o end slavery. Actions against Slavery Lincoln was an outspoken opponent of the expansion of slavery in the United States and while he was in office as the 16th President of the United States, he issued his Emancipation Proclamation in 1 863, and promoted the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, abolishing slavery.

Being born to parents who thought the slave trade despicable, Lincoln hard path to abolish slavery in the entire country led him to become the most impressive, well remembered, and perhaps greatest president of the United States of America. Depicting the characteristics of staying his course no matter how hard the circumstances may lead him to; following are a few examples of Lincoln actions against slavery: Lincoln father-in-law was based in Lexington, Kentucky; he and most of the Todd family were slave owners and some members were slave traders.

Lincoln connections in Lexington could have accelerated his ambitions, but he resided in Illinois, where, to his liking, slavery was almost nonexistent. He closely followed Henry Clay in supporting the American Colonization Society program of making the abolition of slavery practical by eloping the freed slaves return to Liberia in Africa. In 1834 he decided to become a lawyer, and began teaching himself law by reading Blackstone Commentaries on the Laws of England and others. Lincoln description of his learning method was: “l studied with nobody. Admitted to the bar in 1837, he moved to Springfield, Illinois, and began to practice law. He was known for his “free soil” stance of opposing both slavery and abolitionism. Leadership to the American Civil War Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, especially the selection of top generals, including Ulysses S. Grant. He brought leaders of various factions of both parties into his cabinet and pressured them to cooperate. He defused a confrontation with Britain in the Trend affair late in 1861.

Under his leadership, the Union took control of the border slave states at the start of the war, and tried repeatedly to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond. Each time a general failed, Lincoln substituted another, until finally Grant succeeded in 1865. Exhibits of leadership throughout his career as a Lawyer Upon his decision to become a lawyer, after being admitted to the bar in 1837, Lincoln returned to practicing law in Springfield, handling every kind of business that could come before a lowland lawyer.

Lincoln handled many transportation cases in the midst of the nation’s western expansion, particularly the conflicts arising from the operation of river barges under the many new railroad bridges. His reputation grew, and he appeared before the Supreme Court of the United States, arguing a case involving a canal boat that sank after hitting a bridge. Lincoln appeared before the Illinois Supreme Court 175 times, 51 times as sole counsel, of which 31 were decided in his favor. Some of the most popular rout cases Lincoln appeared to and succeeded, are mentioned below. In 1851 , he represented Alton & Samoan Railroad in a dispute with one of its shareholders, James A. Barrett, who had refused to pay the balance on his pledge to buy shares in the railroad, on the grounds that the company had changed its original train route. Lincoln successfully argued that the railroad company was not bound by its original charter in existence at the time of Barrette’s pledge; the charter was amended in the public interest, to provide a newer, superior and less expensive route, and the corporation retained the right to demand Mr.. Barrette’s payment.

The decision by the Illinois Supreme Court has been cited by numerous other courts in the nation. Lincoln most notable criminal trial occurred in 1858 when he defended William “Duff’ Armstrong, who was on trial for the murder of James Preston Metzger. The case is famous for Lincoln use of a fact established by judicial notice in order to challenge an eyewitness’ credibility. After an opposing witness testified seeing the crime in the moonlight, Lincoln produced a Farmers’ Almanac showing the moon was at a low angle, drastically reducing visibility. Based on this evidence, Armstrong was released. In 1859 he defended Peachy Harrison; accused of stabbing another to death, Lincoln angrily protested the judge’s decision to exclude evidence favorable to his client. Instead of Lincoln being held in contempt of court as was expected, the judge, a Democrat, reversed his ruling, allowing the evidence and acquitting Harrison. Qualities which made Lincoln a ‘Great Leader’ Lincoln self-taught education was probably better than anything he would have received at school. Lincoln formal education consisted of approximately 18 months of classes from several itinerant teachers; he was mostly self-educated ND was an avid reader.

Therefore, Lincoln personal philosophy was shaped, not by a formal education, but by “an amazingly retentive memory and a passion for reading and learning. ” It was Lincoln reading, rather than his relationships, that were most influential in shaping his personal beliefs. In 1832, at age 23, Lincoln began his political career with a campaign for the Illinois General Assembly. He had attained local popularity, and could draw crowds as a natural storyteller, though he lacked an education, powerful friends, and money. At 6 feet 4 inches (1. 93 m), he was tall and “strong enough to intimidate any rival. At his first speech, he grabbed an antagonist by his “neck and the seat of his trousers” and threw him. In summary, the following qualities could be highlighted from Lincoln character as the main contributors for Lincoln having a good sense of himself and being able to achieve credibility with his cabinet and the public. 1. Communication Lincoln used storytelling and humor to communicate effectively and relate to people. Even with limited experience he was able to grasp the big picture and convey it to his audience. He also wrote very well and enjoyed poetry. 2. Political Insight

Lincoln treated people with dignity and respect and enjoyed making them laugh. He also was able to keep his ego under control. He learned from his mistakes and was very open and accessible to the public. 3. Sense of Timing Lincoln was a master of timing. During the nomination process for the presidency he stayed in the background until his rivals were unable to gain a majority before positioning himself as a candidate. He also moved very cautiously with the defense of Fort Sumter in South Carolina. He did not want to start the war because he was afraid that the Border States would join the South. 4.

Patience Lincoln showed a great deal of patience and empathy in dealing with people. There are some who think he was too patient in some situations. This was demonstrated in how he handled the Union Army Generals, often making a change only after waiting months for them to be successful in the battlefield. He had great confidence in himself and others that he worked with. He was able to tolerate Salmon Chase, Secretary of the Treasury who was out undermining him so he could become the new President. 5. Goodness Lincoln cared about people and would devote a great deal of time talking and listening to them.

He was very willing to share credit for accomplishments and be of service to people. 6. Courage This is perhaps the most salient of his characters. He appointed people that were better educated and well known than himself. He also initiated the Emancipation Proclamation. Lincoln also visited the battlefield often in support of the troops. 7. The Ability to Change and Stay his Course Lincoln did a lot of changing while in office. He came into office and a war that he didn’t want but was forced to deal with. During the Civil War, Lincoln had to make a number of changes and had to be open to them.

While, Lincoln never changed what he was fighting for he did have to change Generals around more often than he wanted to. He fought for a whole United States without slavery and didn’t sway from that. And, rather than change his course when things got hard or didn’t go smoothly he changed his people to keep on that course. 8. Giving Criticism Lincoln way with criticism was one that has inspired books and he is commonly used as an example of how to criticize. Lincoln never criticized anyone. He never did it personally or publicly. When he replaced a General because f problems he never criticized the General.

He never went to the public and criticized the leaders that he was replacing. 9. His Passion for the Unpopular Abraham Lincoln was a passionate man and the cause was unpopular. The cause was to end slavery. Slavery is something that, today, we wouldn’t argue is wrong but back in Civil War times a large chunk of the nation believed in it so much they tried to break away from the US. Yet, Lincoln had a passion to keep the nation together and did just that. Characteristics that distinguished Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln was always a little bit different.