After receiving a primary education at a local mission school, where he was given the name Nelson, he was sent to the Clockmaker Boarding Institute for his Junior Certificate and then to Hallstead, a Wesleyan secondary school of some repute, where he matriculated. He then enrolled at the University College of Fort Hare for the Bachelor of Arts Degree where he was elected onto the Students’ Representative Council. He was suspended from college for joining in a protest boycott, along with Oliver Tomb. He and his cousin Justice ran away to Johannesburg to avoid arranged marriages and for a short period he worked as a mine policeman.
Mr.. Mandela was introduced to Walter Usual in 1941 and it was Usual who arranged for him to do his articles at Lazar Sideline’s law firm. Completing his BAA through the University of South Africa (Unison) in 1942, he commenced study for his LB shortly afterwards (though he left the University of the Watersides without graduating in 1948). He entered politics in earnest while studying, and joined the African National Congress in 1943. Despite his increasing political awareness and activities, Mr.. Mandela also had time for other things. It was in the lounge of the Scull’s home that I met Evelyn Mass She was a quiet, pretty girl from the countryside who did not seem over-awed by the comings and goings Within a few months I had asked her to marry me, and she accepted. ” They married in a civil ceremony at the Native Commissioner’s Court in Johannesburg, “for we could not afford a traditional wedding or feast”. Mass and Mr.. Mandela went on to have four children: Thimble (1946), Magazine (1947), who died at nine months, Maggot (1951) and Magazine (1954).
The couple was divorced in 1958. At the height of the Second World War, in 1944, a small group of young Africans ho were members of the African National Congress, banded together under the leadership of Anton Lambed. Among them were William Moon, Usual, Oliver R Tomb, Shabby P Mad and Nelson Mandela. Starting out with 60 members, all of whom were residing around the Watersides, these young people set themselves the formidable task of transforming the NC into a more radical mass movement.
Their chief contention was that the political tactics of the “old guard” leadership of the NC, reared in the tradition of constitutionalism and polite petitioning of the government of the day, were proving inadequate to the tasks of national emancipation. In opposition to the old guard, Lambed and his colleagues espoused a radical African nationalism grounded in the principle of national self-determination. In September 1944 they came together to found the African National Congress Youth League (NANCY). Mandela soon impressed his peers by his disciplined work and consistent effort and was elected as the league’s National Secretary in 1948.
By painstaking work, campaigning at the grass-roots and through its mouthpiece Insanity (“Truth”) the NANCY was able to canvass support for its policies amongst the NC membership. Emerging as Leader Spurred on by the victory of the National Party which won the 1948 all-white elections on the platform of apartheid, at the 1 949 Annual Conference the Program of Action, inspired by the Youth League, which advocated the weapons of boycott, strike, civil disobedience and non-co-operation, was accepted as official NC policy. The Program of Action had been drawn up by a sub-committee of the NANCY composed of David Pope, Mad, Mr..
Mandela, James Ongoing, Usual and Tomb. To ensure its implementation, the membership replaced older leaders with a number of younger men. Usual, a founding member of the Youth League, as elected secretary-general. The conservative DRP. ABA Kumar lost the presidency to DRP. AS Moral, a man with a reputation for greater militancy. In December Mr.. Mandela himself was elected to the NECK at the National Conference. When the NC launched its Campaign for the Defiance of Unjust Laws in 1 952, Mr.. Mandela, by then President of the Youth League, was elected National Volunteer-in-Chief.
The Defiance Campaign was conceived as a mass civil disobedience campaign that would snowball from a core of selected volunteers to involve more and more ordinary people, culminating in mass defiance. Fulfilling his responsibility as Volunteer-in-Chief, Mr.. Mandela traveled the country organizing resistance to discriminatory legislation. Charged, with Moral, Usual and 17 others, and brought to trial for his role in the campaign, the court found that Mr.. Mandela and his co-accused had consistently advised their followers to adopt a peaceful course of action and to avoid all violence. For his part in the Defiance Campaign, Mr..
Mandela was convicted of contravening the Suppression of Communism Act and given a suspended prison sentence. Shortly after the campaign ended, he was also prohibited from tending gatherings and confined to Johannesburg for six months. During this period of restrictions, Mr.. Mandela wrote the attorneys admission examination and was admitted to the profession. He opened a practice in Johannesburg in August 1952, and in December, in partnership with Tomb, opened South Africans first black law firm in central Johannesburg. He says of himself during that time: “As an attorney, I could be rather flamboyant in court. Id not act as though I were a black man in a white man’s court, but as if everyone else – white and black – was a guest in my court. When presenting a ease, I often made sweeping gestures and used high-flown language and used unorthodox tactics with witnesses. ” Their professional status didn’t earn Mr.. Mandela and Tomb any personal immunity from the brutal apartheid laws. They fell afoul of the land segregation legislation, and the authorities demanded that they move their practice from the city to the back of beyond, as Mr.. Mandela later put it, “miles away from where clients could reach us during working hours.
This was tantamount to asking us to abandon our legal practice; to give up the legal service of our people No attorney worth his salt would easily agree to do that”. The partnership resolved to defy the law. In 1953 Mr.. Mandela was given the responsibility to prepare a plan that would enable the leadership of the movement to maintain dynamic contact with its membership without recourse to public meetings. The objective was to prepare for the possibility that the NC would, like the Communist Party, be declared illegal and to ensure that the organization would be able to operate from underground. This was the M-Plan, named after him. The plan was conceived with the best of intentions but it was instituted with only modest success and its adoption was never widespread. ” During the early fifties Mr.. Mandela played an important part in leading the resistance to the Western Areas removals, and to the introduction of Bantu Education. He also played a significant role in popularizing the Freedom Charter, adopted by the Congress of the People in 1955. Having been banned again for two years in 1953, neither Mr.. Mandela nor Usual were able to attend but “we found a place at the edge of the crowd where we could observe without mixing in or being seen”.
During the whole of the ‘ass, Mr.. Mandela was the victim of various forms of repression. He was banned, arrested and imprisoned. A five year banning order was enforced against him in March 1956. “[But] this time my attitude towards my bans had changed radically. When I was first banned, I abided by the rules and regulations of my persecutors. I had now developed contempt for these restrictions To allow my activities to be circumscribed my opponent was a form of defeat, and I resolved not to become my own jailer. ” Although Mr..
Mandela and Mass had effectively separated in 1955, it wasn’t until 1958 that they formally divorced – and shortly afterwards, in June, he was married to Amazon Winnie Mandela. Their first date was at an Indian saturate near Mr.. Mandela’s office and he recalls that she was “dazzling, and even the fact that she had never before tasted curry and drank glass after glass of water to cool her palate only added to her charm Winnie has laughingly told people that never proposed to her, but I always told her that asked her on our very first date and that I simply took it for granted from that day forward”.
Unlike his first marriage, the couple observed most of the traditional requirements, including payment of lobar, and were married in a local church in Piazza on June 14 There was no time (or money) for a honeymoon – Nelson had o appear in court for the continuing Treason Trial and anyway his banning order had only been relaxed for six days.
The Trials In fact for much of the latter half of the decade, he was one of the 156 accused in the mammoth Treason Trial, at great cost to his legal practice and his political work, though he recalls that, during his incarceration in the Fort, the communal cell “became a kind of convention for far-flung freedom fighters”. After the Shriveled Massacre on March 21. 1960, the NC was outlawed, and Mr.. Mandela, still on trial, was detained, along with hundreds of others.
The Treason Trial collapsed in 1961 as South Africa was being steered towards the adoption of the republic constitution. With the NC now illegal the leadership picked up the threads from its underground headquarters and Nelson Mandela emerged at this time as the leading figure in this new phase of struggle. Under the Ann.’s inspiration, 1 400 delegates came together at an All-in African Conference in Pittsburghers during March 1961. Mr.. Mandela was the keynote speaker.
In an electrifying address he challenged the apartheid regime to convene a national convention, representative of all South Africans to thrash out a new constitution based on democratic principles. Failure to comply, he warned, would compel the majority (Blacks) to observe the forthcoming inauguration of the Republic with a mass general strike. He immediately went underground to lead the campaign. Although fewer answered the call than Mr.. Mandela had hoped, it attracted considerable support throughout the country.
The government responded with the largest military inflammation since the war, and the Republic was born in an atmosphere of fear and apprehension. Forced to live apart from his family (and he and Winnie by now had two gutters, Keenan born in 1959 and Zinged, born 1960) moving from place to place to evade detection by the government’s ubiquitous informers and police spies, Mr.. Mandela had to adopt a number of disguises. Sometimes dressed as a laborer, at other times as a chauffeur, his successful evasion of the police earned him the title of the Black Pimpernel.
He managed to travel around the country and stayed with numerous sympathizers – a family in Market Street central Johannesburg, in his comrade Wolfe Goddess’s flat (where he insisted on running on-the-spot every day), in the raven’s quarters of a doctor’s house where he pretended to be a gardener, and on a sugar plantation in Natal. It was during this time that he, together with other leaders of the NC, constituted a new section of the liberation movement, Uncommon we Size (MS), as an armed nucleus with a view to preparing for armed struggle, with Mr.. Mandela as its commander in chief. At the Ravine Trial, Mr..
Mandela explained: “At the beginning of June 1961, after long and anxious assessment of the South African situation, I and some colleagues came to the conclusion that as violence in this country was inevitable, t would be wrong and unrealistic for African leaders to continue preaching peace and non-violence at a time when the government met our peaceful demands with force. It was only when all else had failed, when all channels of peaceful protest had been barred to us, that the decision was made to embark on violent forms of political struggle, and to form Uncommon we Size the Government had left us no other choice. In 1962 Mandela left the country, as ‘David Motorways’, and traveled abroad for several months. In Ethiopia he addressed the Conference of the Pan African Freedom Movement of East and Central Africa, and was warmly received by Enron political leaders in several countries including Tanganyika, Senegal, Ghana and Sierra Leone. He also spent time in London where he managed to find time, with Oliver Tomb, to see the sights as well as to spend time with many exiled comrades. During this trip Mr..
Mandela met up with the first group of 21 MS recruits on their way to Addis Baby for guerrilla training. Prisoner 466/64 Not long after his return to South Africa Mr.. Mandela was arrested, on August 5, and charged with illegal exit from the country, and incitement to strike. He was in Natal at the time, passing through Wick on his way back to Johannesburg, goings again as David Motorways, now the driver of a white theatre director and MS member, Cecil Williams. Since he considered the prosecution a trial of the aspirations of the African people, Mr..
Mandela decided to conduct his own defense. He applied for the recluse of the magistrate, on the ground that in such a prosecution a judiciary controlled entirely by whites was an interested party and therefore could not be impartial, and on the ground that he owed no duty to obey the laws of a white parliament, in which he was not represented. Mr.. Mandela prefaced this challenge with the affirmation: “l detest racialism, because I regard it as a Arabic thing, whether it comes from a black man or a white man. ” Mr.. Mandela was convicted and sentenced to five years imprisonment.
He was transferred to Robber Island in May 1963 only to be brought back to Pretoria again in July. The authorities issued a statement to the press that this had been done to protect Mr.. Mandela from assault by PACE prisoners. “This was patently false; they had brought me back to Pretoria for their own motives, which soon became clear. ” Not long afterwards he encountered Thomas Machines, the foreman from Legalities Farm in Ravine where MS had set up their WHQL He knew hen that their hide-out had been discovered. A few days later he and 10 others were charged with sabotage.
The Ravine Trial, as it came to be known, lasted eight months. Most of the accused stood up well to the prosecution, having made a collective decision that this was a political trial and that they would take the opportunity to make public their political beliefs. Three of the accused, Mr.. Mandela, Usual and Gavin Imbibe also decided that, if they were given the death sentence, they would not appeal. Mr.. Mandela’s statement in court during the trial is a classic in the history of the assistance to apartheid, and has been an inspiration to all who have opposed it.
He ended with these words: “l have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die. ” All but two of the accused were found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment on June 12, 1964. The black prisoners were flown secretly to Robber Island immediately after the trial was over to begin serving their sentences.
Nelson Mandela’s time in prison, which amounted to just over 27 and a half years’, was marked by many small and large events which played a crucial part in shaping the personality and attitudes of the man who was to become the first President of a democratic South Africa. Many fellow prisoners and warders influenced him and he, in his turn, influenced them. While he was in jail his mother and son died, his wife was banned and subjected to continuous arrest and harassment, and the liberation movement was reduced to isolated groups of activists.
In March 1982, after 18 years, he was suddenly transferred to Poolrooms Prison in Cape Town (with Usual, Raymond Malabar and Andrew Melamine) and in December 1988 he was moved to the Victor Averters Prison near Pearl, from where he was eventually released. While in prison, Mr.. Mandela flatly rejected offers made by his jailers for remission of sentence in exchange for accepting the Bantus policy by recognizing the independence of the Transfer and agreeing to settle there. Again in the ‘ass Mr.. Mandela and others rejected an offer of release on condition that he renounces violence.
Prisoners cannot enter into entrants – only free men can negotiate, he said. Nevertheless Mr.. Mandela did initiate talks with the apartheid regime in 1 985, when he wrote to Minister of Justice Kebob Cosset. They first met later that year when Mr.. Mandela was hospitalized for prostate surgery. Shortly after this he was moved to a single cell at Poolrooms and this gave Mr.. Mandela the chance to start a dialogue with the government – which took the form of ‘talks about talks’. Throughout this process, he was adamant that negotiations could only be carried out by the full NC leadership.
In time, a secret channel of communication loud be set up whereby he could get messages to the NC in Lusaka, but at the beginning he said: “I chose to tell no one what was about to do. There are times when a leader must move out ahead of the flock, go off in a new direction, confident that he is leading his people in the right direction. ” Released on February 11, 1990, Mr.. Mandela plunged wholeheartedly into his life’s work, striving to attain the goals he and others had set out almost four decades earlier.
In 1991 , at the first national conference of the NC held inside South Africa after being banned for decades, Nelson Mandela was elected President of the NC hill his lifelong friend and colleague, Oliver Tomb, became the organization’s National Chairperson. Negotiating Peace In a life that symbolizes the triumph of the human spirit, Nelson Mandela accepted the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize (along with FEW De Clerk) on behalf of all South Africans who suffered and sacrificed so much to bring peace to our land.
The era of apartheid formally came to an end on the April 27, 1994, when Nelson Mandela voted for the first time in his life – along with his people. However, long before that date it had become clear, even before the start of negotiations at the World Trade Centre in Compton Park, that the NC was increasingly charting the future of South Africa. Nelson Mandela was inaugurated as President of a democratic South Africa on May 10, 1994.
In his inauguration speech he said: “We dedicate this day to all the heroes and heroines in this country and the rest of the world who sacrificed in many ways and surrendered their lives so that we could be free. Their dreams have become reality. Freedom is their reward. We are both humbled and elevated by the honor and privilege that you, the people of South Africa, have bestowed on us, as the first President of a united, democratic, on-racial and non-sexist government. ‘We understand it still that there is no easy road to freedom. We know it well that none of us acting alone can achieve success.
We must therefore act together as a united people, for national reconciliation, for nation building, for the birth of a new world. Let there be justice for all. Let there be peace for all. Let there be work, bread, water and salt for all. Let each know that for each the body, the mind and the soul have been freed to fulfill themselves. Never, never and never again shall it be that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression f one by another and suffer the indignity of being the skunk of the world. Let freedom reign. ” Mr.. Mandela stepped down in 1999 after one term as President – but for him there has been no real retirement.
He set up three foundations bearing his name: The Nelson Mandela Foundation, The Nelson Mandela Children’s Fund and The Mandela-Rhodes Foundation. Until very recently his schedule has been relentless. But during this period he has had the love and support of his large family – including his wife Grab Michel, whom he married on his 80th birthday in 1998. In April 2007 Amanda Mandela, grandson of Nelson and son of Maggot Mandela ho died in 2005, was installed as head of the Moved Traditional Council at an book (“anointment”) ceremony at the Moved Great Place, the seat of the Media clan.
Nelson Mandela never wavered in his devotion to democracy, equality and learning. Despite terrible provocation, he has never answered racism with racism. His life has been an inspiration, in South Africa and throughout the world, to all who are oppressed and deprived, to all who are opposed to oppression and deprivation. Nelson Mandela’s 8 Leadership Best Practices inspire me to choose him as a role model leader) (Which 1 . Courage is not the absence of fear; it’s inspiring others to move beyond it.
In 1994, during the presidential-election campaign, Mandela got on a tiny propeller plane to fly down to the killing fields of Natal and give a speech to his Zulu supporters. When the plane was 20 minutes from landing, one of its engines failed. Some on the plane began to panic. The only thing that calmed them was looking at Mandela, who quietly read his newspaper as if he were a commuter on his morning train to the office. The airport prepared for an emergency landing, and the pilot managed to land the plane safely. When Mandela got in the casket of his bulletproof BMW that would take us to the rally, he said, “l was terrified up there! Mandela was often afraid during his time underground, during the Ravine trial that led to his imprisonment, during his time on Robber Island. He said “Of course I was afraid, I can’t pretend that I’m brave and that can beat the whole world. But as a leader, you cannot let people know. You must put up a front. ” And that’s precisely what he learned to do: pretend and, through the act of appearing fearless, inspire others. It was a pantomime Mandela perfected on Robber Island, where there was much to fear. Prisoners who were with him said watching Mandela walk across the courtyard, upright and proud, was enough to keep them going for days.
He knew that he was a model for others, and that gave him the strength to triumph over his own fear. Think inspiring and influencing people is one of the most crucial requirements for being an efficient leader. Making people to follow you as a leader you must influence them, and to influence them, as a leader, you must show courage under all circumstances, even if you are afraid. All sort of decision-making confronts us every day, from the big and life-changing ones to the small ones. Making these major decisions requires courage. Courage requires the ability to face our fears and take action despite them.
Fear is a natural, a necessary feeling, and is often useful in decision-making to give us a natural, necessary caution. Mandela was a great leader in influencing his followers by showing his courage in his decisions and leadership style, against all the difficulties he has faced in this long run to bring the equality and remove the apartheid in South Africa. He is a good example of “One man with courage makes a majority. ” as Andrew Jackson said. 2. Lead from the front ? but don’t leave your base behind. Mandela is cagey. In 1 985 he was operated on for an enlarged prostate.
When he was returned to prison, he was separated from his colleagues and friends for the first time in 21 years. They protested. But as his longtime friend Aimed Cathedra recalls, he said to them, “Wait a minute, chaps. Some good may come of this. ” The good that came of it was that Mandela on his own launched negotiations with the apartheid government. This was anathema to the African National Congress (NC). After decades of saying “prisoners cannot negotiate” and after advocating an armed struggle that would bring the government to its knees, e decided that the time was right to begin to talk to his oppressors.
When he initiated his negotiations with the government in 1 985, there were many who thought he had lost it. “We thought he was selling out,” says Cyril Rampages, then the powerful and fiery leader of the National Union of Mineworkers. “l went to see him to tell him, what are you doing? It was an unbelievable initiative. He took a massive risk. ” Mandela launched a campaign to persuade the NC that his was the correct course. His reputation was on the line. He went to each of his comrades in prison, Cathedra remembers, and explained what he was ongoing. Slowly and deliberately, he brought them along. You take your support base along with you,” says Rampages, who was secretary-general of the NC and is now a business mogul. “Once you arrive at the beachhead, then you allow the people to move on. He’s not a bubble-gum leader chews it now and throws it away. ” For Mandela, refusing to negotiate was about tactics, not principles. Throughout his life, he has always made that distinction. His unwavering principle ? the overthrow of apartheid and the achievement of one man, one vote ? was immutable, but almost anything that helped him get o that goal he regarded as a tactic.
He is the most pragmatic of idealists. “He’s a historical man,” says Rampages. “He was thinking way ahead of us. He has posterity in mind: How will they view what we’ve done? ” Prison gave him the ability to take the long view. It had to; there was no other view possible. He was thinking in terms of not days and weeks but decades. He knew history was on his side, that the result was inevitable; it was just a question of how soon and how it would be achieved. “Things will be better in the long walk to freedom,” he sometimes said. He always played for the long run.
A leader must be in front f the followers with his visionary and idealist thoughts about the future and must have principles, values and the vision to make people believe and follow him. Mandela had a great vision to bring peace, equality and democracy to Africa; he has never forgotten that great purpose in his long walk to freedom and made small wins with patient to win every single vote to reach his goal. Visionaries who are successful at manifesting their visions base leadership on an inspirational, positive picture of the future, as well as a clear sense of direction as how to get there. Vision is a field that brings energy into form.
Effective leaders broadcast a coherent message by themselves embodying their vision. They keep communicating the vision to create a strong field which then brings their vision into physical reality. Nelson Mandela clearly held a positive vision of a racially harmonious South Africa during his 28 years in jail and helped bring it into reality peacefully to the world. “It is better to lead from behind and to put others in front, especially when you celebrate victory when nice things occur.