Hr Leadership Theories

In addition, critically evaluation of he relevant theories is also analyses. Leadership and Theories Leadership is a process in which one individual influences others towards the achievement of group or organizational goals. Leadership is a social influence and it cannot exist without a leader and followers. Leadership results in the behavior of the followers that is meaningful and goal-directed in an organized setting. Despite the efforts of a standard definition of leadership, Fred Lutheran, mentions in his book Organizational Behavior (2005), “it [leadership] does remain pretty much of a ‘black box’ or unexplained concept. Leadership also means awakening passion among its followers, to have an ability to transform dreams in to reality. Leadership is an on-going process that persuades people to do right things for better future where one person encourages, inspires and motivates for betterment of society. Leadership encourages people to go on the path they do not want to go but they ought to. In short, leadership deals with ‘influence’. Following are various theoretical approaches of leadership: 1. Great man theory: The individual characteristics of leader are born, not made. 2. Trait theories: Individuals possess certain qualities that make them leaders.

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It can be either behavioral or personality characteristics of a leader. Leaders score higher than average on the scores of ability (intelligence), sociability (cooperation, popularity), & motivation (initiative) (Shaw, 1976 & Fraser, 1978). 3. Contingency theories: These are theories that focus on variables that determine which style of leadership is best fit for a situation. This means to look at what the leaders actually do, rather than their underlying characteristics. The management and leadership style is influenced by person’s perceptions about human nature (McGregor, 1960).

It also states that there is no one best leadership style to lead in all situations. 4. Situational theories: This theory was developed to indicate that the style of leadership depends upon the situation, people, task & environment. This means that leaders take action based on the situations that might be different at different times. Fiddler (1964, 1967) stated that there is no single way to lead; instead leader’s style should be chosen according to the situation. This view was also supported by Hershey and Blanchard (1969, 1977). In addition, the leader should balance the needs of the task, team and individuals

Cohn Adair, 1973). 5. Transformational theories: This theory focuses on the connection between leaders and followers. The leaders motivate, inspire and focus on performance of group members individually. The leaders often have high ethical and moral standards. Transforming leadership is a relation of mutual stimulation and elevation the converts the followers in to leaders and leaders in to moral agents (Burns, 1978). 6. Charismatic leadership theory: a charismatic leader is someone who rebuilds morale and brings positivist in future success. This theory combines great man and transformational theories.

The main heartsickness of charismatic leader are dominant personality, Strong role model, behavior and competence, high expectations and confidence in their followers (Morehouse, 2004, p 171 7. Behavioral theories: These theories believe that great leaders are made, not born. This theory focuses on actions of leaders rather than mental qualities. It also believes that people can learn to become leaders through experience, observations and teaching. Steve Jobs & Jeff Bozos Leadership Approaches In light of established leadership theories, Steve Jobs the co-founder and CEO of Apple Inc. As an innovator and a revolutionary leader. Morehouse (2007) describes leadership in his book, Leadership: Theory and Practice, as an individual’s influence to achieve a common goal. Steve Jobs had an influence on the people at Apple Inc. Which resulted in company’s success. Steve Jobs influence spread from people under his immediate direction to the whole organization and the goals Apple Inc. Have accomplished in years in very impressive. The leadership traits that Steve Jobs possessed were persistence & innovation.

Jobs always focused on how to do things better more creatively and effectively. Because of these traits he was able to revolutionist six industries (computers, phones, music, digital publishing, animated movies & tablet computing). He was able to innovate and bring new ideas while solving old problems. In addition, Jeff Bozos the CEO of Amazon is characterized by his counterpoint strength. He viewed things differently from others and was prepared to back his view. Few people believed he would be successful, yet Bozos was because he saw things differently and he was right.

In addition, Jeff Bozos was so confident in his new invention idea of Blue origin (space travel) that he is willing to be misunderstood for long period of time. Transformational adders create something new from old by changing views of the systems (Itchy, Lurch, 1984). Steve Jobs was also a transformational leader and possessed characteristics of level 5 leader. A man, who was neither a graduate nor holding any degree, yet was able to invent patents and using his entrepreneurial skills founded Apple. He remained focused and driven constantly even after being fired from Apple Inc. E had an ability to inspires and influence individuals and audiences, employees and investors and in fact the best of all was his ability to know what public needs before they did. He was able to change the world with lions of people which show his true transformational leadership skills. He was passionate about his work. He himself admits in his speech to graduates of Stanford University, that he found what he loves to do in early life (Jobs, 2005). There are few leaders who often have all three modes of transformational, transactional and laissez-fairer leadership style.

There are four characteristics of Charismatic leader identified by House (1976) which are strong role model, show competence, articulate goals and communicates high expectations. As Steve Jobs was a transformational leader, he would also use transactional leader heartsickness such as severe criticism if designer did not meet his expectation. Steve Jobs had an ability to articulate his vision. He got so many talented people to continue him at next even after the company lost its vision. He helped the employees buy into his vision when Apple was at stage of bankruptcy.

Similarly, Jeff Bozos aimed to build a massive clock that is capable of displaying time for the next 10,000 years. This is Jeff Bozos long term vision for company s future. Some of his visions have paid off with huge revenues and strong position in cloud computing and he has the capability to predict the profits just as Steve bobs thus, making Jeff Bozos a leading visionary. Jeff Bozos is also a situational leader because he was able to bring new technology of reading books by launching Kindle for e-readers. He very well understood the changing technology & innovations and thus acted accordingly.

From being an online retailer of books to producing hardware technology, Jeff has a close eye on long term vision. Since the launch of Kindle, Amazon has a long list of investors. Talking about Steve Jobs, he was not an easy person to be around but he had an ability to choose and decide in situations where he had to take tough decisions on time. Leadership skills of Steve Jobs & Jeff Bozos Person’s skills are the abilities that are learned and developed (Morehouse, 2010). It focuses on what a leader can achieve. The skills approach states that skills, knowledge and abilities are required for a leader to be effective.

For this reason, two studies that define skills approach of Katz(1974) and Uniform, Carrot, Harding, Jacobs, and Fleischman (2000) which would be used to examine the leadership skills of Jeff Bozos and Steve Jobs. Steve Jobs fits in Skate’s Three- Skills Approach which is based on technical, human and conceptual skills. Jobs an a high-tech company but he was neither a nerd nor a graduate. He took personal responsibility for what Apple produced and how products would be perceived by the users. He was not shy of asking endless questions, expressing conflicting opinions and pushing the company to produce better products.

He was an excellent in oral skills and had best taste of product design and persuasive skills that have made consumer feel the need to buy Apple products. Jeff Bozos shocked the world in 2002 by earning profits when other dot. Com companies were making losses. He had technical ability to bring changes and o partnership deals with companies like Toys R Us at that crucial time because E-business were profitable by using basic managerial & business principles. Steve Jobs had leadership potential and because of hire and fire in his career he gained tremendous experience that made him an effective leader.

According to Uniform (2000) the leadership skill model has five elements. These are individual attributes, competencies, leadership outcomes, career experiences and environmental influences. Steve Jobs remained persistent even after being fired from Apple and was ever ready to face setbacks. He came up with Pixie (Movie Animation Company) which was a huge success. Steve Jobs wasn’t known for his sense of fun, but he kept himself the centre of Apple. Even after his company’s success Steve did not lead his company from distance but walked the floor and get to know his people.

Leadership Approach in Slow-Moving Industry The leadership approach of Steve Jobs & Jeff Bozos were charismatic, transformational and situational leadership. If they were leading the slow- moving conservative industry such as banking or construction, to some extent they would have been successful if they were more of a charismatic & transformational leader as well as autocratic. The reason is charismatic leaders are highly enthusiastic and a great motivator. In banking industry there is a constant need to motivate employees to meet their targets such as attracting new customers, selling credit cards, insurances.

If a leader will boost the morale and drive the followers, the outcome will be employees being motivated to meet target and gain rewards. However, if the intention of the leader is varying, it could have a huge impact. This means if a charismatic leader believes more in himself than his team, this could result in collapse of a project or entire industry. In addition, the transformational leadership style could be more successful in slow moving industry because it ensures that routine work is done reliably and looking after new initiatives to add value to the industry.

However, both charismatic and transformational leadership style would not have been as successful as Autocratic and Bureaucratic leadership style where leader gives mostly the instructions and has the power over its people such as in construction industry where lot of money is at stake and not all people would have the knowledge to carry out the task, therefore leader has to command and followers eve to follow precisely. Which Leadership Approach to use when opening new company? When starting a small company like Amazon or Apple with 5 experienced people, would prefer to use various theories and combine them into a thoughtful approach.

Regarding the Trait leadership, firstly as a leader of the team I would find leadership traits that I possess and focus on ones that I want to acquire to lead. Secondly, I would work toward concrete objectives showing concern for people and involve my team in decision making. Moreover I would establish my authority by demonstrating my power as an owner rather than forcing. Also would set achievable goals and earn respect of my team based on my treatment and quality of behavior.

I would be a transformational leader who make employees better people and influence and inspire the experienced team to achieve more than they potentially thought they could. I would focus on inspiration and positive reinforcement of character and traits in others. Nowadays the most common leadership used is transformational leadership because it is best for teams and leaders themselves which leads to high productivity and communicating with everyone in the team. I would create connection with my team and adopt charismatic leadership skills such as confidence & extroversion that are best to motivate.

The key skill would be to be attentive to the needs of my followers in order to help them reach maximum potential. However, the downside of charismatic leader is they believe more in their own work which could result in risking huge tasks if leader leaves. He might believe that he/she can do no wrong even when others warn about the concern and this as a result can ruin an organization. As followers would consider success connected to the presence of charismatic leader, therefore, leader would eve a huge long term responsibility and commitment.

Other theories such as autocratic leadership where leader has complete power over followers; the followers mostly resent treated this way. This could lead to higher absenteeism. In addition, the Bureaucratic Leadership where leaders follow rules rigorously and ensures that people follow procedures precisely; is ineffective in teams and organizations that rely on flexibility, innovation, initiatives and creativity. Therefore, I would prefer to use transformational leadership approach and skills for such a small team of members and focus on trait required to drive my team.

In addition, I would combine my traits with behavior that I embrace; emphasis myself as a company founder and demonstrate strong values and work ethic and influence people to follow and trust my vision. Summary Leadership has no one best standard definition. It evolves and every leader defines it in his way. Leadership is organizing people to achieve a common goal. There are various old to new leadership approaches from great man theory to transformational theories. People are born with innate qualities but these traits are fully successful in leading when combined with acquired knowledge and skills.

Steve Jobs and Jeff Bozos do fit in some of the leadership theories such as Steve being charismatic and transformational leader with expert vision and skills of Jeff Bozos being a technological seer as well as a long term visionary. However, most of the leaders don’t go by the book, they possess all those traits that shock the world when they appear on the stage of being a successful leaders and entrepreneurs. It is the passion that drives these leaders and the confidence in their vision and influence factor which makes them lead their followers.