Our World today has more civilized societies with ever expanding population, having diversity in racial popularization, creed and gender. One common thread or feature in all these people is that everyone has feelings and emotions, and emotions engender emotional intelligence. We, being humans, are superior over other living creatures- we can think, feel and rationalize. Because of that we are being deluded by many behaviors, traits, perceptions , mindset patterns and attitudes.
All these call for some kind of set order where one can act and interact tit one another in ways that are not repugnant, but in harmony and with the decorum that portrays one to be civilized. Leadership is a dynamic process of relationships building between individuals and groups. The constant nourishing of individuals is at the core of effective leadership. Effective leaders improve performance by assuming a level of competence and building upon existing strengths. This paper briefly looks into the impact of emotional intelligence on leadership.
It has been said that there are as many as definitions of leadership as there are those that write it. Leadership is the ability to influence individuals or groups toward the achievement of goals. 1 Leadership is a process where a leader influences the direction of a unit in achieving its objective. 2 Leadership is vision manifest through challenge, encouragement, and inspiring others to action. 3 There are two kinds of people in this world, followers and leaders. Followers are the people that never take a leadership role in any activity.
However leaders are the ones that use their leadership skills to make a difference in this world, such as presidents, teachers, or even college graduates. Leadership is not something o can learn from a book, but you have to gain this skill through experiences such as holding an office, organizing an event, speaking in front of people, or participating in a leadership program. Successful leadership means taking risks, being fully engaged in the challenges of one’s organization, and being prepared to give up everything for one’s values and principles.
Over the years, so many theories, practices, concepts, and styles of leadership has came about. Daniel Coleman gives six leadership styles: Coercive, Authoritative, Affiliated, Democratic, Pacesetting, and Coaching. 4 He states that only four out of the six styles are positive. The Coercive style is a “Do what I tell you” type and can bring about problem with some employees. Coercive is known to be negative. The Authoritative style is a “Come with me” type and some others towards the vision, and is extremely positive. The Affiliated style is a ‘People come first” type and it creates peace among the group and motivates during demanding times.
The Democratic style is a ‘What do you think” type and works off team communication and collaboration, and is positive also. The Pacesetting style is a “Do as I do, now” type which has a negative effect. Pacesetting is getting quick results for high standards. Lastly, the Coaching style is a “Try this” type that is positive that help enlarge long-term strengths for the future. Great leadership works through the emotions. No matter what the leaders set out to do, their success depends on how they do it. 5 Emotions play a pivotal role in leadership. It is through emotions that we are able to lead effectively.
Even if they get everything just right , If leaders fail in this primal task of driving emotions in the right direction, nothing they do will work as well as it could or would. 6 Thus, emotions should also be discussed in the context of leadership. AN OVERVIEW ON EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE Over the past decade, researchers and psychologists have discovered that the most successful leaders develop not only their intellectual abilities, but their social or emotional abilities as well. These discoveries have spawned so many studies and research which discuss the correlation between leaders and their emotions.
Thus, borne Emotional Intelligence. At the most basic, we would define emotional intelligence as the intelligent use of emotions. However, there appears to be more profound definitions and apparently there are three schools of thought governing emotional intelligence: John Mayer and Peter Salvoes define emotional intelligence as the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought ,to understand emotions and emotional meanings , and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote both better emotion and thought. Reuben Bar-On views it as a cross-section of interrelated emotional and social competencies, skills and facilitators that determine how well we understand and express ourselves, understand others ND relate with them, and cope with daily demands, challenges and pressures. 8 Daniel Coleman believes that it is the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships. The three definitions above have corresponding conceptual models which appears to be , as supported by numerous researches, acceptable models of Emotional Intelligence. They are known as the Salvoes-Mayer model; the Coleman model; and the Bar-On model. Although all three models share many consistencies, each model has its own uniqueness. These models are also classified into two: the ability model and the mixed model. 10 THE MAYER-SALVOES FOUR-BRANCH MODEL The Mayer-Salvoes model falls under the ability model which describes four areas of capacities or skills collectively describe many areas of emotional intelligence. 1 More specifically, this model defines emotional intelligence as involving the abilities to: Perceive emotions in oneself and others Use emotions to facilitate thinking Understand emotional meanings Manage emotions The first two areas, Perception and Facilitation, relate most closely to feelings. They involve, first, the capacity to perceive emotions in others accurately, and, second, the ability to use emotions to enhance how we think. The third and fourth areas of II skills pertain to calculating and planning with information about emotions.
The third area, Understanding Emotions, involves knowing how emotions change, in and of themselves, as well as how they will change people and their behaviors over time. The fourth area, Managing Emotions focuses on how to integrate logic and emotion for effective decision-making. The Coleman and Bar-On definitions of emotional intelligence fall into the mixed del category. 12 These researchers believe emotional intelligence includes not only the abilities described in the Mayer -Salvoes model but also includes a number of other attributes.
As such, the mixed model provides a much broader , more comprehensive definition of emotional intelligence. 13 SALESMAN’S FRAMEWORK OF EMOTIONAL COMPETENCIES Salesman’s original model explains emotional intelligence in terms of five elements and twenty five competencies as published in his book, Working With Emotional Intelligence. These are Self-Awareness, Self-regulation, Motivation, Empathy, Social Skills. As researches and studies about emotional intelligence continue to evolve, changes have been adapted to his framework where the original five domains were reduced to only four.
Self -Regulation and Motivation were combined to form Self-Management. The twenty five (25) competencies were reduced to twenty (20) . 14 Managing Diversity was removed as it was highly correlated with Empathy. Commitment was removed as it was highly correlated with the Leadership competency. Optimism was removed. It clustered with Achievement Orientation and Initiative. Team Capabilities was removed. It clustered heavily with Teamwork and Collaboration. Innovation was removed as it was highly correlated with Achievement Orientation.
Figure 1: Salesman’s Framework of Emotional Competencies The firs two domains are personal, while the second two are social and have to do with a person’s ability to manage relationships with others. While each competence contributes on its own to workplace effectiveness, it is more practical to examine them in their clusters. Emotional competencies seem to operate most effectively in synergistic groupings, with the evidence suggesting that mastery of a “critical mass” or cluster of competencies is necessary for superior performance. SELF-AWARENESS The first cluster of emotional competencies within the Personal Competence domain is Self-Awareness. Self Awareness is the ability to recognize a feeling as it happens; it is knowing one’s internal states, preferences, resources and intuitions. It is characterized by a deep understanding of one’s emotions, strength and weaknesses; having a realistic assessment of our own abilities and a well grounded sense of self confidence. People with strong self-awareness are neither overly critical nor unrealistically hopeful. Rather , they are honest – with themselves and with others. 1 6 SELF- MANAGEMENT
Self-management involves a person’s ability to control and regulate their emotions, their ability to stay calm, clear and focused when things do not go as planned, and the ability for self-motivation and initiative. The Self- management cluster of emotional intelligence competencies is the second cluster in the Personal Competence domain and encompasses six competencies: self-control, trustworthiness, conscientiousness, adaptability , achievement drive, and initiative. Self-control is the ability to manage one’s own disruptive and distressing emotions and impulsive feelings by keeping them in check.
Trustworthiness is characterized by a consistent display of honesty and integrity. Conscientiousness is the ability to manage one’s self and his/her responsibilities. People with adaptability are flexible in how they see events, can smoothly handle multiple demands, and are able to adapt their responses and tactics to changing situations and are able to overcome obstacles. Achievement driven professionals learn how to improve their performance by pursuing information to reduce uncertainty and find ways to do better. The last competence in the Self-Management cluster is initiative, which is characterized by the readiness to size opportunities.
SOCIAL AWARENESS Social Awareness is the understanding of other’s feelings , needs, and concerns which stem from the awareness of one’s own feelings. Social Awareness skills determine how persons relate to others, specifically the ability to sense other people’s feelings and read the mood of a group; to inspire and build relationships ; to work in teams; to listen and to communicate. Three competencies lie within the Social Awareness cluster of the Social Competence domain: empathy, organizational awareness and service orientation. Empathy is the fundamental ‘ people skill ‘ that builds on emotional self-awareness.
It is the ability to recognize emotions in others. It is very important today because the world is getting too self-centered, people are getting increasingly attracted towards a materialistic way of life, and the common bonds of friendship and love in the society or family are tottering. Anyone who wants to lead a successful team must possess this valuable trait. According to Coleman, people who are empathetic are more attuned to the subtle social signals that indicate what others need or want. This makes them better at callings such as the caring professions, teaching, sales and management. 7 Individuals with organizational wariness can understand the political forces at work in an organization, as well as the guiding values and unspoken rules that operate among the people there. The service orientation competence involves anticipating, recognizing and meeting client’s needs. SOCIAL SKILL (RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT) Social Skill or Relationship Management , the second cluster in the Social Competence domain, has to do with a person’s ability to manage relationships with others and involves the ability to communicate, influence, collaborate and work with colleagues.
This cluster focuses on social skills and includes the allowing competencies: visionary leadership, influence, developing others, communication, change catalyst, conflict management, building bonds, and teamwork and collaboration. Visionary leadership is the ability to take charge and inspire with a compelling vision. . The influence competence is the ability of a person to exert a range of persuasive tactics. Developing others entails sensing what others need in order to develop and reinforcing their abilities through feedback and guidance.
Effective communication means listening openly and sending clear, convincing and well-tuned messages. Those proficient as a change tally are able to challenge the status quo to acknowledge the need for change. Leaders must also be able to recognize the need for change, remove barriers and enlist others in pursuit of new initiatives. Conflict management competence refer to the ability to handle difficult people and tense situations with skill and tact while negotiating and resolving disagreements. The cornerstone of building bonds competence is cultivating and nurturing web of relationships.
Teamwork and collaboration involves creating group synergy, which fosters the ability to work with others in pursuing collective goals thus promoting cooperation. People ho excel in these skills do well at anything that relies on interacting smoothly with others ; they are social stars. 18 THE BAR-ON MODEL – CZARINA The Bar-On model stresses the importance of emotional expression and views the outcome of emotionally and socially intelligent behavior in terms of effective and successful adaptation. This model illustrates that emotional intelligence is an array of non-cognitive skills.
The Bar-on model has five scales with different attributes that help describe each scale. 19 INTERPERSONAL Self-Regard Emotional Self Awareness Assertiveness Independence Self-Actualization INTERPERSONAL Empathy Social Responsibility Interpersonal Relationship. ADAPTABILITY Involves the ability to be flexible and realistic , and to solve a range of problems as they arise. It has three components: Reality Testing- the ability to assess the correspondence between what is experienced and what objectively exists.
It is the capacity to see things objectively , the way they are, rather than the way we wish or fear them to be. Flexibility- the ability to adjust emotions , thoughts and behavior, to changing situations and conditions. This component of emotional intelligence applies to overall ability to adapt to unfamiliar, unpredictable and yeoman circumstances. Problem Solving – the ability to identify and define problems as well as to generate and implement potentially effective solutions. STRESS MANAGEMENT Concerns the ability to tolerate stress and control impulses.
Its two scales are: Stress Tolerance- the ability to withstand adverse events and stressful situations without falling apart by actively and positively coping with stress. Impulse Control- the ability to resist or delay an impulse, drive or temptation to act . Impulse control entails a capacity for accepting your aggressive impulses, being imposed, and controlling aggression , hostility and irresponsible behavior. GENERAL MOOD Concerns your outlook on life, the ability to enjoy oneself and others, ant the overall feelings of contentment or dissatisfaction.
It has two dimensions: Optimism- the ability to look at the brighter side of life and to maintain a positive attitude even in the face of adversity . It assumes a measure of hope in one’s approach to life. Happiness- the ability to feel satisfied with one’s life, to enjoy it and others life and have fun. It combines self-satisfaction , general contentment and the ability to enjoy life. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE: WHY IT MATTERS- CZARINA “A leader’s intelligence has to have a strong emotional component. He has to have high levels of self-awareness, maturity and self-control.
She must be able to withstand the heart, handle setbacks and when those lucky moments arise, enjoy success with equal parts of joy and humility. No doubt emotional intelligence is more rare than book smarts, but my experience says it is actually more important in the making of a leader. You just can’t ignore it”. 20 JACK WELCH, CHAIRMAN OF GENERAL ELECTRIC SPEAKING TO THE WALL STREET JOURNAL For many years, it was thought that IQ or Intelligence Quotient determined how people succeeded in life. Research have found that IQ is not the only predictor of a person’s success.
They are now looking at emotional intelligence (El) as another determinant of a person’s success in life. IQ is what it takes to get into a desired field, they are entry level requirements for executive positions, but Emotional Intelligence determine how well one will achieve during a career. 21 Data gathered by Dry. Coleman show that Emotional Intelligence is a reliable predictor of higher -division effectiveness: Emotional intelligence played n increasingly important role at the highest levels of the company, where differences in technical skills are of negligible importance.
In other words, the higher the rank of a person considered to be a star performer, the more emotional intelligence capabilities showed up as the reason for his/ her effectiveness. When I compared star performers with average ones in senior leadership positions, nearly 90% of the difference in their profiles was attributable to emotional intelligence factors rather than cognitive abilities. Other researchers have confirmed that emotional intelligence not only distinguishes outstanding leaders but can also be linked to strong performance. 2 Emotions and moods impact our thinking and even the decisions we make and ultimately generate an attitude that we display through behavior and habits. Because emotions and moods are so contagious, the prevailing attitude of an organization is usually a reflection of its leadership. Take the case of Taiwanese computer maker, Acre. Acre ranks as the world’s Number 3 vendor for total PC’s and Number 2 for notebooks, with the fastest growth among the top-five players. It continues to strengthen its leadership in the notebook sector. Its estimated revenue for 2007 is US$14. 6 billion. 23 A good share of the credit can be attributed to Ignorance Lanai, the understated yet upbeat company president who has become the first non-Asian ever to hold such high rank among Twain’s technology titans. 24 From 1997, as Acre Italy’s Managing Director, Ignorance Lanai created a strong organization, expanding and consolidating relationships with channel partners on all levels. His continued efforts, aimed to promote the company’s brand, have helped Acre to become the Italian market leader. In 2000, after being nominated the President of Acre
Europe, Ignorance Lanai expanded the winning strategy employed in Italy to help in creating a strong European organization and, following his nomination as President of Acre MEME, in the Middle East and South Africa. European market profits have reached record highs since his nomination in 2002. 25 As Forbes Asia pointed out last year, operating out of a foreign culture where he barely speaks the language, Lanai has found success by winning over Acre’s 5,300 employees because he “beams humility” and “treasures relationships” . 6 Checking his biography, there is no doubt about his technical expertise as he as solid experience and knowledge of his industry. What makes his leadership different and outstanding? What possible factors affected his leadership style that brought success to his company and positioned it in the industry where it is today? I would say that he does not only rely on his technical skills and knowledge but he has also mastered the art of dealing with people as described by Forbes Asia , “he treasures relationships and he beams humility’.
These traits were his other weapons in winning his employees even if he is a Nan-Asian. His leadership transcends cultural , regional differences and language barrier. When he word “relationship” was mentioned in the article, it dawned on me right away that indeed emotions play a very vital part in the success of one’s organization. Mr.. Lanai, may have a long list of his achievements on his dossier pertaining to his technical skills and knowledge but what matters most in the end is the way he handles relationships.
And this we know is one of the components in all the emotional intelligence models discussed above ?Relationship Management. A person may be academically brilliant but if he is not well equipped to handle his emotions, or the lack of emotional intelligence, poses a tremendous threat n his leadership. A leader’s success can be sabotaged, not necessarily by rivals or circumstances, but sometimes by their own intelligence. Strong intelligence tends to subvert itself if not handled properly. No leader can fulfill all of his her responsibilities with cognitive intellect alone. The changes affecting the workplace extend beyond integrating new technologies and increasing market share. They involve radical shifts in the ways employees interact both interpersonally and collectively. While business runs on brainpower, people thrive and excel on the power of emotions. 27 The importance of developing one’s emotional intelligence is essential to success in the workplace.
Utilizing the power and energy of one’s emotions leads to high motivation and increased problem-solving and improved decision-making thus resulting to an organization’s success. ORGAN Emotional Intelligence does not fit the classic historical models of leadership. The latter are usually associated with great figures of military history and conjure up charismatic and sometimes despotic images. However, people often use the same language for leadership today – bold, brave and tough with a strong sense of purpose and resolve.
However, this does not fit today’s needs, because: Today’s workforce does not accept the autocratic style often adopted by leaders following historical models of leadership. Leadership has had to evolve to match a growing sense of democracy and independence in the workforce employees now have far more options and choices than the foot soldiers of Leaders now need to manage and lead an empowered, workforce and go beyond the consultative, co-operative and democratic styles of today.
These new demands include: Consultation and involvement but leaders still get criticized for not having and communicating a compelling vision and purpose Autonomy and redeem but leaders are still expected to take full responsibility when things go wrong opportunities for growth, challenge and glory – but leaders must be on hand to coach and mentor us so that we develop our potential Inclusion and team spirit but we still want our leaders to give us individual recognition and acknowledgement. 27 ) Conclusion After four week of study and researches on leadership and emotional intelligence, without a question mark in our mind we can say that emotional intelligence is one of most important part of modern leadership.