On the other hand, when you expect little from employees they will give you low performance in return, which was named by Amazonian and Barbour 2004) as set-up-to fail syndrome. Many people feel that they are not recognized or appreciated by their employers for their hard work and in turn develop decreased motivation. Lack of communication and feedback from employers cause employees to feel overlooked and inhibits them from performing to the best of their ability. Employee motivation is one of the strategies of managers to enhance effective job performance among workers in organizations.
Motivation is a basic psychological process. Motivating is the management process of influencing behavior based on the knowledge of what make people tick (Lutheran, 1998). Lutheran (1998) asserts that motivation is the process that arouses, energize, directs, and sustains behavior and performance. That is, it is the process of stimulating people to action and to achieve a desired task. One way of stimulating people is to employ effective motivation, which makes workers more satisfied with and committed to their jobs. Money is not the only motivator.
There are other incentives which can also serve as motivators. However, in order to observe an effective work performance in an organization, work motivation may not be only key factor as put by Lutheran (1998). In this ease, leadership effectiveness and time management will be studied along to see how they relate to work performance in this study. Leadership is a central feature of organizational performance. This is an essential part of management activities of people and directing their efforts towards the goals and objectives of the organization.
There must be an appropriate form of behavior to enhance performance. Leadership might be viewed in terms of the role of the leaders and their ability to achieve effective performance from others. Shinbone (2005) defines leadership as leaders inducing followers to act for certain goals that present the values and the motivations, the wants and needs, the aspirations and expectations of both leaders and followers. Leadership is vitally important at all levels within the company. Leadership is the moral and intellectual ability to visualize and work for what is best for the company and its employees.
Good management and effective leadership help to develop team work and the integration of individual and group goals. Leaders have to sustain performance, sustaining current performance and growing for the future with the workers in the organization. While keeping eyes on performance indicators, adders encourage creativity and innovation, risk taking and skills for future development. Performance of all employees has to be maintained and morale rebuilt. The vital role of the leader in shaping performance and coaching becomes fundamental to the success of an organization.
Time management on the other hand is the development of processes and tools that increase a business time-efficiency. It is the ability to manage and control time (Webb, 2006). It teaches a number of techniques that aim to increase the effectiveness of a person in getting the things done which need to be done. The most common halogen faced at work is time management. It affects productivity and profit. As opined by Wood (2006), time management at work is critical for the success of any organization and this directly affects employees’ performance and the company’s bottom line.
Achieving balance time management in life and reducing stress are part of the keys to becoming successful and fulfilled. It has been revealed (Wood, 2006) that most productive and successful people are those who can excellently manage their time. The resource of time has to be properly managed for success to be achieved in life and workplace. Time management kills are essential for successful people. They are the practical techniques that have helped leading people in business; public service reach the pinnacles of their careers.
It shows how to identify and focus on activities that give one the greatest return. Time management activities help to save time and help employees work smarter. To increase productivity at work, management need some strategies in which, particularly work motivation, leadership effectiveness and time management are prominent. In the light of the above, this 9 study sets to investigate the above variables as they influence employees’ reference in a Flour Mill organization. Statement of the Problem The management of people at work is an integral part of the management process.
To understand the critical importance of people in the organization is to recognize that the human element and the organization are synonymous. Some leaders do not appreciate the fact that employees have to be motivated to ensure they do what they have to do so that the goals and objectives of the organization are achieved. Because of the prevailing situation in Nigeria where supply of labor is greater than its demand, some employers do not believe such in effective motivation of workers to produce high performance.
They uphold the view that even if workers are not properly motivated they cannot leave the job since there is no job in the labor market. Most employers are not effective in their leadership behavior. They treat workers as machines believing that workers could be treated anyhow. Some leaders do not also manage their time effectively with their workers to enhance effective job performance from the workers. In response to this, workers do not handle their work properly. There is no proper planning and they would not prioritize their task accordingly. They reform their task in a negative way, the effect of which is ineffectiveness.
In this case, this study is set to investigate the influence of work motivation, leadership effectiveness and time management as they influence employees’ performance in an organization. Purpose of the Study This study aims at investigating the influence of work motivation, leadership effectiveness and time management on employees’ performance. The specific objectives of the study are to determine joint and relative contribution of the independent variables to employees’ performance and determine the significant relationship that exists between the independent variables and dependent variable.
Empirical review of Literature Motivation and Job Performance The level of performance of employees relies not only on their actual skills but also on the level of motivation each person exhibits (Burner et al. , 2007). Motivation is an inner drive or an external inducement to behave in some particular way, typically a way that will lead to rewards (Desire, 1978). Over-achieving, talented employees are the driving force of all firms so it is essential that organizations strive to motivate and hold on to the best employees (Harrington, 2003).
The quality of human resource management is a critical influence on the performance of the firm. Concern for strategic integration, commitment flexibility and quality, has called for attention for employees motivation and retention. Financial motivation has become the most concern in today’s organization, and tying to Miscalls basic needs, non-financial aspect only comes in when financial motivation has failed. According to Greenberg and Baron (2003, 2000) definition of motivation could be divided into three main parts.
The first part looks at arousal that deals with the drive, or energy behind individual (s) action. People turn to be guided by their interest in making a good impression on others, doing interesting work and being successful in what they do. The second part referring to the choice people make and the direction their behavior takes. The last part deals with maintaining behavior clearly defining how long people have to persist at attempting to meet their goals Motivation can be intrinsic and extrinsic. Extrinsic motivation concerns behavior influenced by obtaining external rewards (Hit, Seer, & Marriott, 1992).
Praise or positive feedback, money, and the absence of punishment are examples of extrinsic r external rewards (Decide, 1980). Linguistic motivation is the motivation to do something simply for the pleasure of performing that particular activity 10 (Hodgepodge and Van Hyphen, 2003). Examples of intrinsic factors are interesting work, recognition, growth, and achievement. Several studies have found there to be a positive relationship between intrinsic motivation and job performance as well as intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction (Line, 2003).
This is significant to firms in today’s highly competitive business environment in that intrinsically motivated employees will perform better and, therefore, be more productive, ND also because satisfied employees will remain loyal to their organization and feel no pressure or need to move to a different firm. Decide and Ryan (2000) conducted and replicated an experiment that showed the negative impact of monetary rewards on intrinsic motivation and performance. A group of college students were asked to work on an interesting puzzle.
Some were paid and some were not paid for the work. The students that were not being paid worked longer on the puzzle and found it more interesting than the students being paid. When the study was brought into a workplace setting, employees felt that their behavior was being controlled in a dehumidifying and alienating manner by the rewards. It was discovered that rewards would seriously decrease an employee’s motivation to ever perform the task being rewarded, or one similar to it, any time in the future.
Another observation of the study was that employees would expect a reward every time the task was to be completed if the reward was offered at one time. Employees would require the reward in order to perform the job and would probably expect the reward to increase in amount. If the rewards were not increased or if they were taken away they actually served as active reinforcement. Decide and Ryan (2001), in collaboration with two of their colleagues, conducted a study to examine the effects of performance-contingent rewards on an employee’s intrinsic motivation (Cameron, Decide, Costner, and Ryan, 2001).
These types of rewards are very controlling since these rewards are directly associated with an employee’s performance of some task. In that respect, performance-contingent rewards undermine intrinsic motivation; however, if the reward given to the employee conveys that the employee has performed on a truly outstanding level, the reward would serve to solidify that employee’s sense f competence and decrease the negative effect on that employee’s intrinsic motivation.
Also significant in the study was the importance of the interpersonal atmosphere within which the performance-contingent rewards were distributed. When Cameron et al. (2001) compared the administering of rewards in a controlling climate and in a non-controlling climate, they discovered that the performance-contingent rewards given in the more controlling interpersonal climate undermined intrinsic motivation. To prevent the decrease in employees’ intrinsic motivation, the interpersonal climate when distributing performance- intention rewards should be more supportive.
Broom (1964) proposes that people are motivated by how much they want something and how likely they think they are to get it he suggest that motivation leads to efforts and the efforts combined with employees ability together with environment factors which interplays resulting to performance. This performance interns lead to various outcomes, each of which has an associated value called Valence. Adams (1965) on his part suggests that people are motivated to seek social equity in the rewards they receive for high performance.
According to him the outcome from job includes; pay, recognition, promotion, social relationship and intrinsic reward. To get these rewards various inputs needs to be employed by the employees to the job as time, experience, efforts, education and loyalty. He suggests that, people tend to view their outcomes and inputs as a ratio and then compare these ratios with others and turn to become motivated if this ratio is high. Leadership Effectiveness and Job Performance Leadership, or more specifically effective leadership, is every bit as crucial (if not more so) in African organizations as it is throughout the world.
African organizations are no different from there worldwide in terms of striving for performance in order to be globally competitive. The South African situation, however, is incredibly complex as many organizations are caught in the middle of a web of 11 authoritarian hierarchies and traditional leadership approaches, as well as bureaucratic hierarchies mixed with modern approaches to leadership (Growler, Wrench, Carrel, Albert and Hatfield, 2002). It is argued that effective leadership has a positive influence on the performance of organizations (Marital, 1995; Bass, 1997; Carlton, 2000).
Ultimately it is the performance of many individuals hat culminates in the performance of the organization, or in the achievement of organizational goals. Effective leadership is instrumental in ensuring organizational performance (Cummings and Schwab, 1973; Helloing, Jackson, Slouch, Statue, Amos, Sloppier, Low and Southern, 2004). As a result, many leadership theories have been proposed in the last fifty years which are claimed to have influenced the overall effectiveness of the organizations where they have been employed.
In the competitive world business environment it is vital that organizations employ leadership styles that enable organizations to survive n a dynamic environment (Marital, 1995; Bass, 1997) Performance has been defined by Helloing, Jackson and Slouch (1999) as the level of an individual’s work achievement after having exerted effort. Cummings and Schwab (1973) and Wheaten and Cameron (1998) believe that performance is ultimately an individual phenomenon with environmental variables influencing performance primarily through their effect on the individual determinants of performance ability and motivation.
Belling and McMullen (1996) confirmed the link between high performance and leadership in the United States by developing a model of harmonistic/transformational leadership where the leaders’ behavior is said to give rise to inspiration, awe and empowerment in his subordinates, resulting in exceptionally high effort, exceptionally high commitment and willingness to take risks. It has been widely accepted that effective organizations require effective leadership, and organizational performance will suffer in direct proportion to the neglect of this (Marital, 1 995; Risotto, Amos and Statue, 1999).
Time Management and Employees’ Performance Time management at work is critical for the success of any organization (Wood, 2006). He asserted that the biggest mistake people in the job is not realizing how much time is lost due to poor time management at work which directly affects employees’ performance and the company’s bottom line. Time has to be analyses and used wisely in the workplace. Time has to be set aside each day to review and prioritize demands on the time. Time is costly and individual employees and departments are accountable for the use of their time.
Goals are defined and should be clearly stated, divided into long and short term which has to be broken down into weekly and daily action plans. Workloads eave to be controlled and more time to focus on most important aspects of the job (Heeler & Handle, 1998). The most common challenge we face at work is time management. It affects productivity and profit. As opined by Woods (2006), time management is critical for the success of any organization and this directly affects employees’ performance and the company s bottom line.
Achieving balanced time management in life and reducing stress are part of the keys to becoming successful and fulfilled. Wood (2006) asserted that time management behavior, control over time has a significant effect on employees job reference. Awake (2002) asserted that good time management can improve job performance, personal life and mental health. He added that a person who performs efficiently and effectively in the job has more time for personal life. It has been revealed that most productive and successful people are those who can excellently manage their time.
The resource of time has to be properly managed for success in the workplace to be achieved. Time management skills are essential for successful people. To increase productivity at work need concentration of time management (Wood 2006). This is the ability to focus ND accomplish the most vital priorities. The environment must be set and distractions should be avoided. Heeler and Handle (1998), asserted that people’s attitudes towards time are complex and variable.
He noted that individuals need to be aware of the current habits and attitudes which shape his use of time if s/ he is said to be time conscious. 12 Scriber & Gutted, (1987) found a significant relationship between overall job performance and time management. They asserted that management of time is key to managerial performance. Research Questions 1. What is the relationship teens each of the independent variables (work motivation, leadership effectiveness and time management) and employees’ performance? 2. What is the composite effect of the independent variables on employees’ performance. . What is the relative effect of each of the independent variables on employees’ performance. Methods Design The research design used is ex-post facto which is a systematic empirical inquiry in which the variables are already existing and are inherently not manipulative. This is to test theories, satisfy curiosity, identify behavioral phenomena, explore conditions under which a phenomenon occurs. The independent variables are work motivation, leadership effectiveness and time management while the dependent variable is job performance.
Participants The sample used for the study was three hundred (300) workers from the population of some selected industries in Abidjan, Oho State, Nigeria in order to understand how work motivation, leadership effectiveness and time management influence their job performance. The selected industries include manufacturing, marketing and banks. The participants cut across junior and senior workers. Stratified random sampling was used to select the participant of this study. The participants’ ages range between 22 and 60 years. The sample was made up of 175 males and 125 females.
Instrumentation The instrument used for the study was adapted from Workers’ Behavior Assessment Battery developed by Hammed (2002). Three sections which described work motivation, time management and job performance were used for the study. The response format used includes five point scale: Strongly agree, A- Agree, U – Undecided, D- Disagree, SD-strongly disagree. Workers’ Behavior Assessment Battery Sub Sections Work Motivation Behavior Profile This is a 5-item scale which assure work motivation strategy employed by managers in an organization.
Hammed (2002) reported internal consistency reliability in work motivation sub section as ranging from . 63 to . 75. The coefficient alpha for this section was 0. 90. This implies that the section is reliable for this study. The scale has also been reported to satisfy the validity procedures. For example, the measuring instrument was reported to have convergent construct validity coefficient of 0. 83 when compared with similar scale on the domain of behavior; and a discriminate validity coefficient of -0. 5 when compared with dissimilar scale (Hammed, 2002).
Team Leadership Behavior Rating Scale This is a 5-item scale which measures leadership behavior of managers in an organization. Hammed (2002) reported internal consistency reliability in leadership effectiveness sub-section as ranging from . 67 to . 82. The coefficient alpha was 0. 91, which calls for suitability of this section for the study. 13 Time Management Behavior Inventory This is a 5-item scale which measures how leaders in organization utilize time to enhance performance of employees. The response format for this section was a 5-point: AS- Strongly agree, (2. A- Agree, (3).
Undecided (4) D- Disagree, (5). SD-Strongly disagree. The internal consistency reliability in time management sub-section was reported as ranging from . 63 to . 79 (Hammed, 2002). The coefficient alpha was 0. 89. This explains the reliability of the measuring instrument for the study. Job Performance Rating Scale Job performance is a 5-item scale which measures how productive are the employees in an organization. Political factor contributes to violence among adolescents. The response format for this section was a 5-point: AS- Strongly agree, (2. ) A- Agree, (3). Undecided (4) D- Disagree, (5).
Strongly disagree. The internal consistency for this section ranged between 0. 72 and 0. 82 and coefficient alpha of 0. 93 was observed. This implies that this section is also reliable for the study. Procedure The instruments used in this study were administered to the workers in the selected industries. These workers spread across the lower, intermediate and senior cadres. Permission was taken from the management before the administration of the instruments, and the purpose of study was explained to them. The respondents were instructed on how to administer the instruments.