“Leadership is a process where one person influences a group of others to achieve group or organizational goals- Leadership is thus about motivation. ” Table of contents Topic Page Number 1 Executive Summary 3 2 Leadership 3 2. 1 Leadership Definition 4 3 The Four Main Phases of Leadership Theory 4 4 Motivation 7 4. 1 Motivation Models and Theories 7 5 Motivation and Leadership Styles 8 case Study- Royal Bank of Scotland Group: Motivation and Leadership 10 7 Conclusion 11 References 14 1.
Executive Summary This paper is about leadership and motivation. One of the main issues is whether leader can effectively lead individuals (be they employees or not) without motivating them in way or another. Leadership is firstly defined and the role it plays in the organization and in life. Next the theories of leadership are introduced with simple examples illustrating each of the theories. Subsequently, motivation is introduced, defined alongside with theories of motivation.
A table with leadership and motivational styles, based on the work of Robert Webb is introduced and explained. An application on leadership and motivation is introduced following a case on Royal Bank of Scotland (RIBS) and the motivational factors they use in order to lead their employees- followed by a conclusion. 2. Leadership Leadership, as a process, shapes the goals of a group or organization, motivates behavior toward the achievement of those goals, and helps define group or organizational culture. It is primarily a process of influence.
The success of any organization could be attributed mainly to successful leadership. The search for effective leaders has been the goal of most major organizations. Despite this, leadership is also a dynamic and changing process- influence may always be here but that doesn’t mean that the person carrying out that influence doesn’t change. Though management and leadership are related, they are not considered in most management studies to be the same thing. A person could be a leader, a manager, both or neither (Moorhens and Griffin, 2004).
Management fundamental functions rotate around rationality, control and consistency whereas leadership is concerned with the main functions of direction-setting, inspiration, vision, creativity, legitimacy and consent in public affairs (Paton, 1996) 2. 1 Definition: Griffin (2002) defined leadership as follows: Leadership is both a process and a property. As a process, leadership-focusing on what leaders actually do- is the use of non-coercive influence to shape the group’s or organization’s goals, motivate behavior toward the achievement of those goals, and help define group or organization culture.
As a property, leadership is the set of characteristics attributed to individuals who are perceived to be leaders. Thus, leaders are people who can influence the behaviors of others without having to rely on force; leaders are people whom others accept as leaders (p. 520) Motivating people has a prominent focus on leadership. Leaders have the inspirational power to direct people towards the goals. Motivation could be achieved by different routes such as rewards, creation of teams, coalitions, training, directing and human relations. 3.
The Four Main Phases of Leadership Theory: Theory Main Tenets Traits Personal traits, some of which are hereditary and encompass a big variety such as intelligence above average, self-assurance and confidence, drive , motivation, knowledge, “helicopter effect” to indicate ability to rise above particulars of a situation and perceive it in an overall way, good physical health, integrity, faith, courage, etc. Traits could lead to success at different situations at hand. Example: most of the powerful leaders are good speakers and communicators.
Hitler can be used an example- he convinced and instructed people to carry out unimaginable things to others causing much suffering to the world during his reign in Germany. He achieved this through the use of being self assured and confident- showing clear direction to the German population to where he could take the angry, hungry and frustrated German- it is argued that “The Nazis rose to power on the empty stomachs of the German people” (Rise of Dictators). Behavioral Here the focus has shifted from the leader to leadership.
Two primary dimensions of behavior: task-orientation and follower-orientation. Thus, two types: authoritarian and democratic with differences reside in the focus of power. Productivity is expected to be higher in the democratic dimension. The theory suggests that effective leaders behave differently than less-effective leaders. There is job-centered behavior or initiating-structure behavior as opposed to employee-centered behavior or consideration behavior. Both styles are at ends of a single quantum. The behavior is an interaction of Tyler and expectations.
Example: An army officer shows behavior of high levels of conformity and appreciation and respect to the roles and expectations. In contrast to an employee in a research and development unit or a creative studio who strive on creativity and breaking the mould- thinking “out of the box”. Contingency Such theories are continuation of the situational approach to leadership. In these theories the factor of situation and behavioral aspects are taken into consideration. The leader’s appropriate behavior changes with situation.
The variableness of the situation depends on the leader’s interpretation and point of view. It takes more specific account of other variables in the situation. It considers the task, work group and the position of the leader within that group. Each organization is unique and universal theories cannot be applied to organizations. Example: emergence of good leaders during crises or natural catastrophes in any country like some individuals in charity groups during earthquake aftermaths. Transformational Also called charismatic theory.
It goes beyond ordinary expectations by transmitting a sense of mission and stimulating learning experiences, and inspiring new ways of thinking (Griffin, 002). Two kinds of leadership: transactional which is almost the same as management as it recognizes what people want out of the job and gives it back to them in exchange of work done, and gives rewards and promises for effort, it involves routine activities; the second type is transformational which raises the level of people’s awareness about significance and value of outcome and how to reach them and it alters the need level of people.
Example: the leadership of Hewlett Packard adapting what is known as “HP Way” which rotates around gentle encouragement of people to contribute their employees’ ideas and initiatives. 4. Motivation The Oxford Dictionary defines motivation as “the reason or reasons behind one’s actions or behavior” (2005). It can further be defined as, “the willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need” (Robbins et al, 2000). However, motivation does not only occur in the workforce it also occurs in our day to day lives.
A person’s motivation is dependent upon two things; the relative strength of a certain need and the perception that taking action to do something will in fact attics the needs. Motivation can be the result of a number of forces, such as beliefs, interests, fear, causes and so on. Some of these forces are internal to the individual whilst others are from the external environment in which they are surrounded by. 4. 1 Motivation Models and Theories Abraham Mascot developed a hierarchy of needs, consists of 5 levels.
The bottom level must be met in order to move onto the higher levels. Once an individual has moved upwards to the next level in the pyramid, needs in the lower level will no longer be prioritize. Below is a representation of the Hierarchy of Needs. Victor Broom concocted the Expectancy Theory, which is more adaptable to and specific to the organization. Broom’s theory states that employees will be motivated when they believe that, putting in more effort will lead to better job performance which in turn will lead to organizational rewards (such as pay increase, bonus’ etc. And that these things are important to the employee. This theory is based on 3 concepts: Valence (how much the individual wants a particular outcome) Instrumentality (level of effort put in order to obtain the outcome) Expectancy (probability/strength of belief that a certain action will dead to the outcome) In order to motivate employees, managers should in turn use systems that tie rewards in closely to performance. 5.
Motivation and Leadership Styles The style that leadership takes on can also influence the level of motivation. Motivation itself, however, is also influenced based on man’s changing situations and ambition and the leadership style that one associates themselves under. Below is a table displaying different leadership styles with appropriate motivation types, it takes into consideration the basis of motivation, the personality type of the individual and how efficient it is:
Leadership Style Motivation Type Basis of Motivation Personality Type Efficiency Limited Supervision Self Motivated Creativity Leader of ideas of people High Mixed Styles Goal Motivated Opportunity Leader of ideas or people Personality type and efficiency depend on leaders skills/ the work environment he created Reward Motivated Materialism Independent Achiever Recognition Motivated Social Status Thrives on change High Level of Supervision Command and Control Peer Motivated To be like others Status Quo Low Authority Motivated Follow policy Dependency Threat, Fear Motivated Reacts to force Resist Change Robert L Webb, 2003
This table states that self motivated individuals will not accept authority type of controlled environments- they may feel trapped a need and think of a way to escape. On the other hand, authority motivated individuals will enjoy the authoritarian approach and follow through the policies and may not enjoy working in a creative type, low level of supervision workplace. For that reason, the manager/leader should try and identify which type of employee is working there in order to really motivate them and get the utmost out of them.
In terms of the role that the leaders can take in order to motivate depends highly pong the role in which the employees undertake. For instance in the case of self motivated employees, the leaders role as a motivator is quite limited (despite still being able to motivate). 6. Royal Bank of Scotland Group: Motivation and Leadership The Royal Bank of Scotland Group (RIBS) is one of the world’s largest financial corporations; they provide all sorts of financial services to consumers and businesses alike. They serve more that 36 million customers around the world, operating in Europe, USA and the Asian Pacific.
Due to their expansive reach around the world RIBS attract a constant supply of talented, potential, employees. With all these employees working for the same corporation, RIBS have to be able to effectively lead and motivate their employees. The applications of certain motivational theories are introduced in RIBS. For instance, they employ Mason’s hierarchy of needs. RIBS are aware that meeting the higher needs of employees is a vital part of motivating and leading people- therefore they have put in place various measures in order to meet those needs.
They furthermore, employ Herbage’s motivating factors- “hygiene” factors by institutionalizing clean work places and good basic pay to their employees. Once they are in play, other titivating factors are introduced to recognize employees for work well done and other bases of performance management. In order to do this, RIBS have employed a “Total Reward Scheme” where as part of motivating their employees and leading them in the right direction they have designed special benefits for all their employees- including health, pensions and childcare.
All the roles at RIBS have performance targets. These targets are set in order to lead RIBS in a certain direction. Employees have the opportunity to earn an attractive bonus for reaching goals. To further this, they offer all employees generous profit sharing chem. where they pay employees a bonus of over 10%. Moreover, they try and promote the idea of trebling the money that they make in order to pass it on all to charity- this could also be seen as a motivational factor. RIBS recognize the importance of having a balance with good-work life.
This is characterized as the time spent at and outside the workplace. Therefore, in order to make employees happy and lead them towards fulfilling organizational goals they have introduced flexibility in the workplace where employees are allowed to work from home, part time work and so on. They introduced a concept of “Your Time”- this is a aerogram that helps employees by the firm (RIBS) recognizing that employees may need time off for reason other than sickness- this could also include taking time off for a holiday, a career break, go traveling, spend more time with the family and so on.
All these factors come into play when RIBS try and lead their employees and lead them by making them carry out processes. They do this by keeping the employee happy, by motivating- offering them rewards, giving them flexibility in the workforce and generally keeping them happy. This would make them determined to follow out and to return the favor and also make RIBS happy. All in all, it can be concluded that RIBS adopts a forward and advanced way of thinking of Human Resource Management Strategy. They provide a world- class employment package to all their employees, regardless of the level of the organization that they work in.
With RIBS they truly do bring the motivational theories come to life to lead their diverse and immense workforce. 7. Conclusion Not only are leadership and motivational qualities important to have as a manager, they are also essential for employees to posses as well and people in general. Leading is the ability to influence others in a group. In order to be thought of as good and effective leader requires them to understand what motivates and drives people and employees around them. In general people want to feel as though they fit in somewhere, not only this but employees in general are usually lured by high salaries.
This however, is not enough to keep employees happy- they have to feel challenged, feel that there is room to grow, make friendships and connect with other people. It will be must easier to lead and motivate for leaders if they understand what exactly are the needs of the group. Previously, certain personal qualities were characterized as being the qualities ND traits of a leader- that they are brave, outgoing, tall, articulate and so on. However, many powerful and leaders did not fit these criteria (Napoleon was short, Abraham Lincoln was an introvert… Leading can therefore, be used as to channel motivation for practical use. There are many factors that should be considered to keep employees motivated. One example is that of the use of Total rewards which are used by some organizations in order to recognize the work that employees are doing and to reward them on it. Hopefully, this will help to encourage this type of behavior. However, here is the argument that sometimes only rewarded work will be taken into consideration and non rewarded activities and work will be neglected.
For instance, if employees are paid based on the amount of work they produce then the employees will only try and increase the work they produce regardless of the quality. Leadership as a process indicates the use of non-coercive influence for the sake of shaping the organization or group goals and motivating the behavior for the purpose of achieving the goals. Good leaders create the change in their organizations and set vision and identify the goals.