In the name of “Allah”, the most beneficent and merciful who gave us strength and knowledge to complete this report. This report is a part of our course “Organizational Behavior’. This has proved to be a great experience. This report is a combine effort of, Amaze Khalid’s, Muhammad Susan Bad and Muhammad Gain. We would like to express our gratitude to our organizational behavior teacher Mr.. Reed. Cdr. Tableaus, who gave us this opportunity to fulfill this report. We would also like to thank our colleagues who participated in a focus group session.
They gave us many helpful comments which helped us a lot in preparing our port. 1. 3 Objective The general purpose of this study is to determine the satisfactory level of job among the employees of British American Tobacco Bangladesh. We have selected British American Tobacco because this company has a multinational job environment and ensures the maximum level of efficiency among the employees. To for 3. Research Methodology A. Pilot survey We did a pilot survey for questionnaire testing (Pogo, 1999; Bobbie, 2004) detect error, validity and scale reliability.
We used a 5 point- scale (“1” Strongly Disagree to “5” for Strongly Agree) developed by Liker (1932). The pilot survey was done during in the month of January-February, 2008 with 30 respondents from 6 enterprises. A total number of 20 HARM items were used for and simple the survey. The this study. The sample size was 30 at managerial (mid level) jobs random was used to obtain feedback and the scale validity of calculated Cockroach’s alpha (a) value is 0. 9063, which indicates the high reliability of the instrument. B.
In-depth Interviews The second stage of our research method was in-depth interviews with the 12 executives. Semi-structured open-ended questionnaire was used for in- depth interviews. A simple random sampling method was used at this stage. The questionnaire was distributed to the executives to get feedback. C. Full-scale survey Full scale questionnaires were administered in the month of April, May and (BEEPS June 15, 2008 within 53 manufacturing organizations out of 103 statistics, May, 2008) organizations in economic zone, DEEP.
That covers 216 respondents from the total of 512 in the surveyed enterprises with the response rate of 42. 18% (26. 18% of 825 total entire populations). A simple random sampling method was used for selecting the enterprises. From the pilot river and in-depth survey finding and suggestion, questionnaire was modified and surveyed for this stage. D. Sample For the survey, a random sampling was chosen for selection enterprises from the A, B and C category of DEEP organizations. A total number of 53 enterprises were selected from 1 03 and that covered 21 6 respondents.
HISTORY OF THE DACHA BANK LIMITED: , DACHA BANK LIMITED was incorporated as a public limited Company on 6th April 1995 under the company act. 1994 and started its commercial operation on June 05, 1995 as a private sector bank. The bank started its journey with an authorized capital of TX. 1,000. 00 million and paid capital TX. 100. 00 million. It is now one of the most renowned private banks having multiple branches in the major cities of the country. DB has started its business with all the features of a corporate bank and the products of both corporate and retail banking system to facilitate the daily clientele requirements.
Among all of its products Credit card is one of the most important financial-tool of the modern banking sector, Though DACHA BANK is always trying to improve their services in this field, but in today’s competitive cuisines world, banks need to offer additional concentration to the clients’ requirement in order stay at the top. Therefore, besides dealing with the general attributes of the Credit card, they also have been trying to put more emphasis on the customer benefits and other customer related facilities.
The Credit Card Division is a new venture for the bank, so the card is only for the use within the city and therefore it is facing a huge competition against the existing local Credit Cards in the market. Moreover, DACHA BANK LIMITED has expressed tremendous interest to create a competitive market for their Credit cards. GOAL SETTING THEORY: Goal setting theory was born out of Aristotle theory of final causality and then researched in greater detail by Edwin A. Locke in the sass to understand how goals can influence an individual’s performance.
The basic theory behind goal setting is that human behavior is gallivanted and governed by goals and ambition. Today, goal setting theory is very important not only for those studying organizational psychology, but for anyone seeking to increase productivity, enhance performance and reach for greater heights of success. Goals are able to motivate and spur you to meet your ambitions because it helps you focus your forts on that objective. Every objective we have requires a list of tasks to be executed.
By setting goals, we’re able to persist with the list of tasks and are compelled to develop strategies in order to reach our objective. The incredible results achieved with the goal setting theory explain why it’s not just colleges, universities and sports institutions that use it to obtain results, but in businesses too where survival is based on ensuring positive outcomes. Having objectives is not the issue, but striving to attain them is. Following are the points that help you to achieve goals: State your goals in specific terms. Understand what your goals are and know why you’re selecting these goals. Make your goals attainable. There is no point setting goals you believe are unattainable. The best way to do this is to break your goals down into actionable steps. Measure your goals. Set a timeshare, or a milestone that can put the pressure on you to meet your objectives. ANALYSIS: To what extent you and your colleagues feel that the company sets challenging goals for itself and expects quality performance and outstanding production? Answer Log Table: I Low II standards I 12 II 12 13 1 4 15 Ill I Tells group members what they are supposed to do. – 14 118 13 112 I Acts friendly with members of the group. L- l- 13 15 117 113 I Sets standards of performance for group members. Others feel comfortable in the group. 12 15 112 16 114 I Helps 4 18 113 115 I Makes suggestions about how to solve problems. L- 12 14 16 113 116 I Responds favorably to suggestions made by others. Perspective clear to others. I Treats others fairly. L- l- 16 110 19 117 I Makes his/her 2 116 17 118 -12 5 118 119 I Develops a plan of action for the group. II 114 17 13 1110 I Behaves in a predictable manner toward group l- 13 112 12 18 1
We asked different questions relating to the leadership style from NIB Bank employees to know which leadership style their leader uses and we found that two of the leadership styles that are task oriented and people oriented or relations-oriented. The results we got from employees of NIB Bank that 53% of the employees feel that their managers are relationship oriented leaders and remaining 47% feels that their managers are task oriented leaders so this shows that the NIB Bank has got the combination of leaders that are task oriented and relationship oriented.
This shows that NIB Bank have the leaders that perform teeter in all situations and can manage their teams more effective in favorable conditions and also in very unfavorable conditions. PATH GOAL THEORY: House’s PATH GOAL THEORY describes how leaders can motivate their followers to achieve group and organizational goals and the kinds of behaviors they can engage in to accomplish that Path Goal theory suggests that effective leaders follow three guidelines to motivate their followers.
The guidelines are based on the expectancy theory of motivation. Effective leaders who follow these guidelines have highly motivated subordinates who are likely to meet their work locals and perform at high levels. Determine what outcomes subordinates are trying to obtain in the workplace. For example, what needs are they trying to satisfy, or what goals are they trying to meet? After gaining this information, the leader must have control over those outcomes or over the ability to give or withhold the outcomes to subordinates.
Reward subordinates for performing at high levels or achieving their work goals by giving them desired outcomes. Make sure the subordinates believe that they can obtain their work goals and perform at high levels. Leaders can do this y showing subordinates the paths to goal attainment (hence the name path goal theory), by removing any obstacles that might come along the way, and by expressing confidence in their subordinates capabilities.
House identified four types of behavior that leaders can engage in to motivate subordinates: Directive behavior (similar to initiating structure) lets subordinates know what tasks need to be performed and how they should be performed. Supportive behavior (similar to consideration) lets subordinates know their leaders cares about their well-being and is looking out for them. Participative behavior enables subordinates to be involved in making decisions that affect them. Achievement-oriented behavior pushes subordinates to do their best.
Such behavior includes setting difficult goals for followers, expecting high performance, and expressing confidence in their capabilities. We designed a different questionnaire especially for the TOP MANAGEMENT OF NIB Bank and the questions were related to PATH GOAL THEORY as the questionnaire belongs to the top management so we asked four top level managers of NIB Bank to fill this questionnaire list of their names and assignation are given below: By studying our questionnaire we found different behaviors of leadership and there contribution in the organization’s behavior.
We found different results for each behavior after analyzing the answers of our respondents which are given below: Directive Leaders Behavior: The most contributive behavior in leadership behaviors in NIB Bank having 27% share in leadership behavior was found to be directive behavior which is being frequently used in the organization we targeted. The benefit of using directive form of leadership which is characterized by greater control, defining what deeds to be done, allocating resources and establishing clear expectations.
The directive leadership behavior takes a more pragmatic approach to handling affairs in NIB Bank and is characteristically utilized in corporate turn-around situations. Supportive Leaders Behavior: The second most contributory behavior in leadership behaviors in NIB Bank having 26% share in leadership behaviors was found to be supportive behavior the results obtained shows that supportive behavior used in NIB Bank is almost the same as the use of directive leadership behavior with having difference of only 1% which is not a very big figure.
Participative Leaders Behavior: Participative leadership behavior is the least used behavior in NIB’s culture with having 23% this shows that the NIB Bank leaders do consult with their subordinates while making a decision but at low frequency as compared to other PATH GOAL leadership behaviors. Achievement Oriented Leaders Behavior: The third most contributory behavior in leadership behaviors in NIB Bank with having percentage of 24 this shows that the leaders of NIB Bank set challenging goals for their subordinates with low frequency but they expect from their employees to perform at their highest level.
The results of our analysis shows that there is no such big difference in leadership behaviors used in NIB Bank and this is a very good sign for NIB Bank that their leaders manage their subordinates according to different situations with different leadership behaviors. NORMS: “Norms are shared group expectations about behavior and how members ought to behave. ” Norms provide groups with control and predictability and give members a sense of security and comfort. Norms are also the way we express values, attitudes and beliefs.
Norms put boundaries on members that may be narrow or wide. Many norms in organizations originate from management expectation or from work rules and procedures of the formal organization. They develop and operate in informal groups. Many central work group norms revolve around productivity. Norms can put lower and upper limits on productivity. Controlling productivity not only spread the work ought to more people for a longer period, but also prevents management from rising its expectation.
Some organizations have norms emphasizing social concern for employees this norm foster taking care of people who needed or other wise contributing to the quality of an employee’s life at work. Management can foster many norms that contribute to organizational success, such as norms effecting work quality, helpfulness or customer relation. A norm of secrecy may be critical to keep competitors from stealing ideas. Norms are of four types. The one we quire about is social norm. The reason of selecting social norm is that our culture is based on collectivism so the importance of social norms is very high.
The situation of norms in NIB’s culture is fair enough according to the result of our questionnaire most of the employees follows the norms set by the organization and they are satisfied with them, but e found some employees who are willing to improve the conditions i. E. Norms the calculated value of there willingness is about 25%. The major factors of social norms are friendliness, trust and mutual support. According to the employees in NIB Bank the conditions of trust and friendliness are pretty good and they are willing to increase mutual support.
It is necessary to emphasize on social arrangement norms in country like Pakistan because of its collectivism culture and these norms helps the organization to get the participation of their employee in positive manner to achieve the goals set by the organization these kind of norms also motivates the employees to remain in organization because of friendly culture in organization social arrangement norms also helps the employees to interacts with each other in more friendly manner which will increase trust among them and with there top management.
If these norms are valued by the management then it will positively affect employee satisfaction and productivity and it will also enhance the organization culture CONFORMITY: “Conformity can be defined as a change in a person’s behavior or opinions as a exult of real or imagined pressure from a person or a group of people”. Who does Conformity affect? Conformity can affect people in all different ways, positively and negatively. In task-specific situations, those who are led to believe they do not have the required aptitude, their tendency to conform increases. Individualistic societies are less likely to conform than collectivist.
How does Conformity work? An individual will most likely conform if: The majority consists of experts The members of the majority are important to the individual The individual can relate to the majority on some level–there are similarities between he individual and the group Through our questionnaire we analyzed the pattern of answers given by employees and we found many similar answers in regard of questions and it shows greater extend of conformity among employees of NIB Bank as they have almost marked similar options given in each questions of our questionnaire.
The level of conformity shows there good relations and understanding with each other which also shows that they will not leave each other in hard times but on the other hand the high level of conformity indicates the danger of employees saying always yes to other’s decision instead of thinking critically about it and here might be a chance of employee saying yes under pressure in the fear of loosing group and may result in loss of any useful idea.
I instruction without I I Arrives at decision by consensus, where appropriate, to gain team Waits for team to ask for information instead of proactively I I commitment. He ‘big’ picture. I keeping them informed of 1 ASS supportive of the team / individuals and helps in overcoming problems toll Exhibits high personal energy when initiating action but does not I locative targets. I follow through. I I Leads by example; displays behavior which reflects the desired work norms I Talks about the theory and principles of leadership, yet not I land values.
I reflected in behavior. I Spends time finding out the way individuals want to be managed and work I Uses the abilities of staff for own personal and career gains; I Together; adapts leadership by style to match. Does not share benefits and praise but passes on criticisms and I I I blame. By constructing well-balanced teams; I I Maximizes the available resource I acknowledges and helps others values the unique contributions of each Does not seek to identify and discuss the values of the team to I member.
I ensure everyone is working towards a common goal. I Elderliness own leadership style and strengths, adapts these to specific I Avoid admitting own mistakes or limitations. I situations. I I Follows up with dissenters or blocker to contain negativity. Guidelines for reducing conflicts between team members set by NIB’s management: The ability to pull together individuals or parties in conflict by diffusing emotions, identifying the critical issues and helping got reach al I compromise; keeps the focus on common objective to meet both needs.