Leadership and Performance

When people are educated, their standards f living are likely to improve, since they are empowered to access productive ventures, which will ultimately lead to an improvement in their livelihoods. The role of education therefore, is not just to impart knowledge and skills that enable the beneficiaries to function as economies and social change agents in society, but also to impart values, ideas, attitudes and aspirations important for natural development.

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In spite of the government initiatives in improving access, equity and quality of education, the secondary sub-sector continues to face challenges, particularly he low participation rates, low transition rates from primary to secondary and from secondary to tertiary (particularly to universities), as well as gender and regional disparities.

From the researches that have been conducted on the impact of the government efforts to improve access equity and quality on performance indicate that most public schools have a lot of wastage, very poor performance in national examinations and poor learner preparation to face the world after school. It has become alarming since the number of secondary school graduates from public day and boarding schools exit without entry grade o university is increasing day by day. This has increased crime rate, drug and substance abuse, immorality and cases of HIVE and AIDS on the increase.

It is, on this backdrop that the research endeavors to establish reasons why even when the Government has done so much to increase access, equity and quality to education still good performance remains for a few secondary schools (without the district) and many Kenya children are still coming out of school with poor grades that can not help them move to the next level or get meaningful training. How can the problem be remedied and which adjustments need to be dad. To this end, this proposed research will analyze the effect of management or leadership styles of the principal on the teachers and students performance.

The theoretical framework adopted for this study is derived from the systems theory of organizations, which emerged as part of an intellectual ferment following the World War II, although its roots are much are much older. Its founder, Ludwig von Bertelsmann, was concerned about growing compartmentalizing of knowledge and argued that certain general ideas could have relevance across broad spectrum of disciplines: that despite obvious preferences among the many kinds of organizations, they share very general characteristics and that is important to discover what they are(Hong et al. 2004). The systems theory cuts across all the four paradigms of management thoughts, for every organization that produces output in a system of some of sort (Katz & Kahn, 1966). And an organization, including a school, regardless of its size and purpose, and the management perspective adopted not withstanding, basically concerned with relationships, structures and interdependence rather than just constant attributes (Katz & Kahn, 1966).

This study will be modeled on the stimulates of systems theory because schools, like other organizations, are always in constant exchange with the larger society. Rosemary as cited in BP (1999) defines management as “the art of getting things done through others” (p. 96). Famine (2001), however, defines management “as the coordination of all the resources of an organization through the process of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling in order to attain organizational objectives” (p. 12).

Eraser (1973), on the other hand asserts that management is the utilization of physical and human resources through cooperative efforts, which is accomplished by performing the functions of planning, organizing, coordinating, directing and controlling. By management styles, I refer to, new leadership and management approaches in order to enhance efficiency and effectiveness. Improved efficiency is achieved through management reforms; raising the learner teacher ratio, increasing teachers’ time on task, reducing repetition and improving accountability (Unusual, 2003).

Leadership at work in education institutions thus needs to be a dynamic process where an individual is not only responsible for the group’s tasks, but also actively seeks he collaboration and commitment of all the group members in achieving group goals in a particular context (Cole, 2002). Leadership in that context pursues effective performance in schools, because it does not only examine tasks to be accomplished and who executes them, but also seeks to include greater reinforcement characteristics like recognition, conditions of service and morale building, coercion and remuneration (Valuably, 2000).

It is this scenario that the researcher needs to establish whether it is practiced in Naira North District and if it is, what is its impact on the teacher and student performance This is also described by Asking and Asking (2003) as visionary leadership. However, according to them, the concept of leadership that matters is not being limited to those at the top of the organization such as the chief executive officer or principal/head teacher, but depends on certain characteristics of the leader.

It involves much more than the leader’s personality in which leadership is seen as more of mutating followers to achieve goals (Shaking, 2003:2). This is supported by Lava Thus (as reported in Shaking, 2003:7) that good leadership commits to doing less and being more. However, Cole (2002) defines leadership as inspiring people to perform. Even if an institution has all the financial resources to excel, it may fail dismally if the leadership does not motivate others to accomplish their tasks effectively.

It is therefore this consideration that has made it necessary to determine the impact of the management or leadership styles on the teacher and learner performance in secondary schools in Naira North District of Naira County. 1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Although it is the Kenya government’s policy to ensure the delivery of quality education in secondary schools in Kenya, performance, particularly in Naira North District has remained poor, despite the various interventions by policy makers and implementers. Such a situation is alarming, bearing in mind that secondary education play a pivotal role in the development of any country.

Equally important, are the overarching policies of Jenny’s education, which strongly emphasize the importance of science education in attainment of vision 2030. Scholars, policy makers and school managers have resolved to address the poor academic performance in secondary schools in Naira North District by conducting research on its would be antecedents such as a lack of instructional trials, ensuring quality teachers, admitting good students, remuneration and the motivation of teachers, improving discipline and community participation in schools.

Nevertheless, all the above studied and recommendations implemented there is still poor academic performance in our public secondary schools which makes it necessary to make a study on the management or leadership styles adopted and the impact of them on teachers and students performance. Hence this study is intended to investigate the relationship of head teachers’ leadership or management style and the performance of secondary schools in Naira North District.

It is deemed that an investigation in this area would shed light on the factors affecting performance and in particular the effect of leadership / management styles on school performance. 13 The purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to establish to what extent the leadership/ management styles adopted by principals have influence on the teacher and school’s performance Naira North District, using cross – sectional survey design with the aim of examining how leadership styles adopted by school principals influence the schools overall performance in secondary schools in

Naira North District. Leadership styles will be characterized by behavioral tendencies, and characteristic methods of a person in a leadership position. An important dimension of leadership style is the extent to which the leader is willing to delegate responsibility and encourage input from followers. Another basic dimension is the extent to which a leader is task-motivated (concerned with defining goals and the means to achieve them) or relationship-motivated (concerned with supporting and encouraging subordinates).

A distinction can also be drawn between the charismatic leader, who relies on his or her personal loyalties to inspire followers, and the bureaucratic leader, who depends on his or her position in the hierarchy and an established set of rules and procedures. In particular the study will determine and describe the effects of the various leadership styles (the authoritarian or autocratic leader, democratic leader, transformational leader, situational or contingency and laissez-fairer leader) adopted by principals on teachers and student performance. 1. Specific objectives The study will be guided by the following specific objectives: a) To establish the relationship between the demographic characteristics of principals and teachers ND school performance. B) To establish whether performance in Naira North District secondary schools is dependent on the management or leadership styles c) To establish whether performance in secondary schools in Naira North District is dependent on the autocratic leadership style, democratic leadership style, transformational leadership style, situational or contingency leadership style of school head teachers. ) To elicit the viewpoints of head teachers, teachers and students on the preferred leadership styles. E) To make recommendations for the improvement of schools on the basis of an analysis of adhering styles. 1. Research Questions/Hypotheses The guiding questions will be: 1. What is the relationship between the demographic characteristics of principals and teachers and school performance? 2. What is the relationship between management styles of principals and staff performance?

A case study of secondary schools in Naira North District (Naira County). 3. Is the performance in secondary schools in Naira North District dependent on the autocratic leadership style, democratic leadership style, transformational leadership style, situational or contingency leadership style of school principals? 4. What are the viewpoints of principals, teachers and students on the preferred leadership styles? 5. What recommendations can be made for the improvement of schools on the basis of an analysis of leadership styles?

Hypotheses 1. The demographic characteristics of principals influence teachers’ and student academic performance 2. There is positive relationship between management styles of principals and staff, and student academic performance. 1. Significance of the study While some may still ascribe to the old adage that ‘leaders are born, not made’, there remains a societal responsibility to provide school leaders with the kills and practices needed to orchestrate schools in a way that can maximize sustained achievement for all students.

The continued research on behaviors and practices of leaders (Fallen, 1 985; Murphy & Healthier, 1992) remains important in the light of the changing role of the principal. The findings from the study would help to augment and enrich theories and principles on school leadership. It would also have a direct impact on the future training of school leaders and teacher leaders. Data generated from this study could serve as a practical framework for the Ministry of Education, or other training agents and Geiger institutions, to plan, organize and provide leadership-training program for school leaders and prospective leaders.

The study could also be important for school leaders as the findings can help them take heed of their leadership behavior and become more sensitive to the process and importance of human interaction. The findings from this study may offer more insights and serve as a critical friend in academia, encouraging principals to reflect, break out of their traditional practices, raising consciousness, and questioning deeply entrenched assumptions. Hopefully, all ironically would ultimately fulfill their leadership dream, and lead the schools in the direction as Bath (in Fallen, 1997) puts it, ‘you can lead where you will go. 1. 7 Limitations and Delimitation’s of the Study This study will be concerned with effects of leadership or management styles on teacher and learners performance. It will be conducted in Naira North District (Naira County) between September 2011 and December 2011 using cross – sectional sample survey design and a sample of 25 secondary schools will be selected from 43 secondary schools in the district. Data will be collected by the searcher using questionnaires, interviews and document analysis techniques. The following are limitations of the proposed study. The study will include public secondary schools in Naira North District. Therefore, the results of this study may not be generalized to private schools. It will not be possible to cover the opinions of parents and other stake holders in this district because tracing them will require considerable time, resources and other logistics Though only public secondary schools in Naira North District will be included in the study, nevertheless, Naira North is typical of many districts with regard to recent emphasis on school reform and school improvement projects.

Therefore, the results of this study may apply to other, similar district of the county and Kenya at large. 1. Theoretical and conceptual frameworks theory of organizations developed by Ludwig Von Bertelsmann in the early asses. It emerged as part of an intellectual ferment following the World War II, although its roots are much are much older. The systems theory has had a significant effect on management science and understanding organizations. A system is a collection of part unified to accomplish an overall goal.

If one part of the system s removed, the nature of the system is changed as well. A system can be looked at as having inputs (e. G. , resources such as raw materials, money, technologies, and people), processes (e. G. , planning, organizing, motivating, and controlling), outputs (products or services) and outcomes (e. G. , enhanced quality of life or productivity for customers/clients, productivity). Systems share feedback among each of these four aspects of the system.

The systems theory is an alternative to the classical and neo – classical organizations theories which the researcher felt cannot suffice because of their emphasis on schools as fragmented and closed social units independent of external forces (Baker 1973). The only meaningful way to study an organization (school) is to regard it as a system. Thus schools should be managed more like organizations where educational programmers are innovated and re – innovated to realize the importance each part makes to the whole, and the necessity of eliminating the parts that make negative contributions.

With the development of the various educational disciplines and departments, considerable overlap is inevitable among the different fields. The proliferation of specialization, as in many branches of education, also leads to rather overlapping. Because of these interactions, schools are better studied as wholes rather than parts (Baker, 1973). Systems theory postulates that schools are like other on systems which of necessity engage in various modes of exchange with the environment (Katz & Kahn, 1966).

The theory emphasizes the consideration of the relationships between the school and its environment as well as what goes on within the school (Hall, 1977). The systems theory is basically concerned with the problems of relationships, of structures and of interdependence, rather with the constant attributes of objects (Katz & Kahn, 1966). The fundamental concept in the general systems theory is the notion of emergence and interaction. As adapted in this study the systems theory holds that management actions influence the internal efficiency of a school.

That staffing and control of students’ admissions coordination of teaching and learning resources, school fees budgeting and leadership styles adopted in school influence the drop outs and repetition rates, and promotion rates and general climate in a school. In the application of the systems theory to this study on the effect of management/ leadership styles on teacher and student performance the variables will be identified as follows: 1. Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims (Kenton and Heroic 1990, p. ). This basic definition means several things. First, as principals, carry out the managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. Secondly, managing is concerned with productivity – this implies effectiveness and efficiency. Effectiveness and efficiency is the ability of the school to keep or reduce, to as low as possible, the dropout and repetition rates, increase completion and rumination rates and to produce high outcomes that is good academic performance and no wastage.

It also ensures that students complete an educational cycle in the possible minimum time. 2. Thus, management refers to the development of bureaucracy that derives its importance from the need for strategic planning, co-ordination, directing and controlling of large and complex decision-making process. Essentially, therefore, management entails the acquisition of managerial competence, and effectiveness in the following key areas: problem solving, administration, human resource management, and school leadership.

First and foremost, management is about solving problems that keep emerging all the time in the course of an organization (school) struggling to achieve its goals and objectives. Problem solving will be accompanied by problem identification, analysis and the implementation of remedies to managerial problems. Second, administration involves following laid down procedures (although procedures or rules should not be seen as ends in themselves) for the execution, control, communication, delegation and crisis management.

Third, human resource management should be based on strategic integration of human resource, assessment of workers, ND exchange of ideas between stakeholders, teachers and workers. Finally, school leadership should be developed along lines of interpersonal relationship, teamwork, self-motivation to perform, emotional strength and maturity to handle situations, personal integrity, and general management skills. However, in adopting the systems theory of organizations this study, the researcher is not ignorant of its shortcomings.

The interrelationships among parts of a system have to be recognized and understood by ‘all’ people involved. This theory also requires a shared vision so that ‘all’ people in the school have an dead of what they are trying to accomplish. It requires a cohesive effort from all participants, a task that is not easy to achieve especially where ‘all’ is involved. Conceptual frame work In the conceptual framework depicted in the figure above the management or leadership style is hypothesized to influence the teachers and student performance.

Management or leadership style is defined as having managerial competence and effectiveness in the following key areas: problem solving, administration, human resource management, and school leadership that is being able to carry out the managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing, eating, and controlling and teacher and student performance as early syllabus coverage motivated staff reporting to work early and leaving work place late, no school drop outs, no repletion cases, there is increased completion rates and good academic results in national examinations.

The frame work postulates that managerial competence and effectiveness in leadership will affect the rate of drop outs, repetition, completion rates and academic performance of students in a school. However, this relationship may be modified by age, faith of the staff, background as well as families from which the staff comes from. Chapter Two (2) Literature review 2. Introduction This chapter discusses the literature related to the effect of management/ leadership style on teachers and student performance.

It particularly focuses on the relationship between the demographic characteristics of principals and teachers and school performance, establish whether performance in Naira North District secondary schools is dependent on the management or leadership styles, establish whether performance in secondary schools in Naira North style, transformational leadership style and situational or contingency leadership Tyler, elicit the viewpoints of head teachers, teachers and students on the preferred leadership styles and make recommendations for the improvement of schools on the basis of an analysis of leadership styles.

These are considered the pillars of the study. In this chapter, the researcher reviews literature related to management/ leadership styles and its effects on school performance. The review is conceptualized under the objectives and focuses mainly on autocratic leadership style, democratic leadership style and situational or contingency leadership style and their relationship with teachers and students performance. 0 Transformational leadership Bush (2003) links three leadership models to his ‘collegial’ management model. The first of these is ‘transformational leadership’. This form of leadership assumes that the central focus of leadership ought to be the commitments and capacities of organizational members. Higher levels of personal commitment to organizational goals and greater capacities for accomplishing those goals are assumed to result in extra effort and greater productivity. Letdown et al. 1999: 9). Letdown (1994) conceptualizes transformational leadership along eight omissions: Building school vision Establishing school goals providing intellectual stimulation Offering individualized support Modeling best practices and important organizational values Demonstrating high performance expectations Creating a productive school culture Developing structures to foster participation in school decisions.

Caldwell and Spanks (1992: 49-50) argue that transformational leadership is essential for autonomous schools: ‘Transformational leaders succeed in gaining the commitment of followers to such a degree that higher levels of accomplishment come virtually a moral imperative. In our view a powerful capacity for transformational leadership is required for the successful transition to a system of self-managing schools. ‘ Letdown’s (1994) research suggests that there is some empirical support for the essentially normative transformational leadership model.

He reports on seven quantitative studies and concludes that transformational leadership practices, considered as a composite construct, had significant direct and indirect effects on progress with school- restructuring initiatives and teacher- perceived student outcomes’ (p. 506). The transformational model is comprehensive in that it provides a normative approach to school leadership, which focuses primarily on the process by which leaders seek to influence school outcomes rather than on the nature or direction of those outcomes.

However, it may also be criticized as being a vehicle for control over teachers and more likely to be accepted by the leader than the led (Churchill 1999). Allis (2000) goes further and alleges that transformational leadership has the potential to become ‘despotic’ because of its strong, heroic and charismatic features. He believes that the leader’s power ought to raise moral qualms’ and serious doubts about its appropriateness for democratic organizations. Transformational leadership is consistent with the collegial model in that it assumes that leaders and staff have shared values and common interests.

When it works well, it has the potential to engage all stakeholders in the achievement of educational objectives. The aims of leaders and followers coalesce to such an extent that it may be realistic to assume a harmonious relationship and a genuine convergence leading to agreed decisions. When ‘transformation’ is a cloak for imposing leaders’ or governments’ values, then the recess is political rather than collegial. 2. 2 The situational or contingency leadership style The situational theory stipulates that leaders are the product of given situations.

Thus, leadership is strongly affected by the situation from which the leader emerges and in which he operates. The contingency theory is a combination of the Trait Theory and Situational Theory. The theory implies that leadership is a process in which the ability of a leader to exercise influence depends upon the group task situation and the degree to which the leader’s personality fit the group (Sybil, 2000). 2. Autocratic leadership style The autocratic leadership style is also known as the authoritarian style of leadership.

Power and decision-making reside in the autocratic leader. The autocratic leader directs group members on the way things should be done. The leader does not maintain clear channel of communication between him/her and the subordinates. He or she does not delegate authority nor permit subordinates to participate in policy-making (Smile and Jack, 1990; Ho and Missile, 1992; Olympian, 1997). 2. 4 Democratic style of leadership The democratic style of leadership emphasizes group and leader participation in he making of policies.

Decisions about organizational matters are arrived at after consultation and communication with various people in the organization. The leader attempts as much as possible to make each individual feel that he is an important member of the organization. Communication is multidimensional while ideas are exchanged between employees and the leader (Henna and Bennie, 1999). In this style of leadership, a high degree of staff morale is always enhanced (Mba, 2004). Performance Performance is described in various ways.

It is an act of accomplishing or executing a given task (Canola, 1990). It can also be described as the ability to combine skillfully the right behavior towards the achievement of organizational goals and objectives (Olympian, 1999). Teachers’ job performance is described as the duties performed by a teacher at a particular period in the school system in achieving organizational goals (Boilable, 1999). It can also be described as the ability of teachers to combine relevant inputs for the enhancement of teaching and learning processes (Kayaking, 1993; Kinney, 1995).

However, Promoted (1996) argued that job performance is determined by the worker’s level of articulation in the day to day running of the organization. It is noted that employees behave differently under different situations. 2. 5 Summary It is underpinned by the view that leaders should have an entitlement to appropriate preparation and support for their important and onerous role in leading educational change. To appoint school principals without specific preparation is a gamble, and we should not gamble with children’s education.

The literature review tends to give reasons for the enhanced global interest in the role of school leaders. It assesses the differences among the various adhering/management styles, and argues that all are essential if schools and colleges are to thrive. It also emphasizes the evidence that effective leadership is critical to school improvement. While the importance of leadership/management style is increasingly recognized, much less is known about which leadership behaviors are most likely to promote successful schooling.

The study will examine the various models of leadership and assess the evidence of their effectiveness. There is great interest in ‘instructional leadership’ because of the widespread view that the main function of schools is to promote student learning. Transformational leadership is widely advocated because of its potential to harness stakeholder support for the school’s (or leader’s) vision but there is some concern that this may be a vehicle for imposing leaders’, or governments’, priorities on teachers, pupils and communities.

These and other models that have been highlighted above are subject to scrutiny in this study. 2. 6 Conclusions Principals’ can therefore encourage effective performance of their teachers by identifying their needs and trying to satisfying or meeting them. Supporting this argument, Owe (1999) asserted that variables of job performance such s effective teaching, lesson note preparation, effective use of scheme of work, effective supervision, monitoring of students’ work and disciplinary ability are virtues which teachers should uphold effectively in the school system.

In this regard, the teachers’ performance can be measured through annual report of his/her activities in terms of performance in teaching, lesson preparation, lesson presentation, mastery of subject matter, competence, teachers’ commitment to job and extra-curricula activities. Other areas of assessment include effective leadership, effective supervision, effective monitoring of students’ work, titivation, class control and disciplinary ability of the teachers.

From the above researches done the effect of the leadership or management style adopted by principals in secondary schools has not been well researched on and as such not much is known whether it is the style the principals adopt that affects the performance standards or whether there are other issues in management in the secondary schools of Naira North District. There is a widespread belief that raising standards of leadership and management is the key to improving schools. Increasingly, this is linked to the need to prepare and develop leaders for their emending roles.