Leadership Effectiveness

Moreover interviews were also conducted to former and existing members of the Justinian Eng Kaftans (K) to get first hand information about their previous and prevailing experiences on the services benefited from the youth organization-SKI Most of the comments came from the youths; programs/projects initiated by heir respective councils were very limited on the type of programs and its beneficiaries; and they also agreed that in the progress of administration, SKI is becoming ineffective as a manifestation of declining performance on their function to carry out the objectives of the organization.

C. Review of Related Literature and Studies Foreign Literature and Studies Good performance is the criterion whereby an organization determines its capability to prevail. Performance measurement estimates the parameters under which programs, Investments, and acquisitions are reaching the targeted results. However, a model for performance set faulty may depict a disadvantageous situation which does not support the organization nor the thriving to the set aims. Pick] Performance Reference Model of the Federal Enterprise Architecture, 2005. All process of measuring performance requires the use of statistical modeling to determine results. A full scope copy of the performance of an organization can never be obtained, as generally some of the parameters cannot be measured directly but must be estimated via indirect observation and as a complete set of records never delivers an assessment without compression to key figures. Fundamental purpose behind measures is to improve performance.

Measures that are not directly connected to improving performance (like measures that are directed at communicating better with the public to build trust) are measures that are means to achieving that ultimate purpose (Been 2003). Been 2003 gives 8 reasons for adopting performance measurements: 1. To Evaluate how well a public agency is performing. To evaluate performance, managers need to determine what an agency is supposed to accomplish. (Crackup & Shack 1996). To formulate a clear, coherent mission, strategy, and objective. Then based on his information choose how you will measure those activities. You first need to find out what are you looking for). Evaluation processes consist of two variables: organizational performance data and a benchmark that creates a framework for analyzing that data. For organizational information, focus on the outcomes of the agency performance, but also including input/ environment/ process/ output- to have a comparative framework for analysis. It is helpful to ask 4 essential questions in determining organizational data: Outcomes should be directly related to the public purpose of the organization. Effectiveness Q: id they produce required results (determined by outcomes). Cost-effective: efficiency Q (outcome divided by input). Impact Q: what value organization provides. Best-practice Q: evaluating internal operations (compare core process performance to most effective and efficient process in the industry). As in order for organization to evaluate performance its requires standards (benchmark) to compare its actual performance against past performance/ from performance of similar agencies/ industry standard/political expectations. 2. To Control How can managers ensure their subordinates are doing the eight thing.

Today managers do not control their workforce mechanically (measurement of time-and-motion for control as during Taylor) However managers still use measures to control, while allowing some space for freedom in the workforce. (Robert Kaplan & David Norton) Business has control bias. Because traditional measurement system sprung from finance function, the system has a control bias. Organizations create measurement systems that specify particular actions they want execute- for branch employees to take a particular ways to execute what they want- branch to spend money.

Then they want to measure to see whether the employees have in fact taken those actions. Need to measure input by individual into organization and process. Officials need to measure behavior of individuals then compare this performance with requirements to check who has and has not complied. Often such requirements are described only as guidelines. Do not be fooled. These guidelines are really requirements and those requirements are designed to control. The measurement of compliance with these requirements is the mechanism of control. 3.

To Budget Budgets are crude tools in improving performance. Poor performance not always may change after applying budgets cuts as a disciplinary action. Sometimes budgets increase could be the answer to improving performance. Like purchasing better technology because the current ones are outdated and harm operational processes. So for decisions highly influenced by circumstance, you need measures to better understand the situation. At the macro level, elected officials deciding which purpose of government actions are primary or secondary. Political priorities drive macro budgetary choices.

Once elected officials have established macro political oratories, those responsible for micro decisions may seek to invest their limited allocation of resources in the most cost-effective units and activities. In allocating budgets, managers, in response to macro budget allocations (driven by political objectives), determine allocations at the micro level by using measures of efficiency of various activities, which programs or organizations are more efficient at achieving the political objectives. Why spend limited funds on programs that do not guarantee exceptional performance?

Efficiency is determined by observing performance- output and outcome achieved considering number of people involved in the process (productivity per person) and cost-data (capturing direct cost as well as indirect) 4. To Motivate Giving people significant goals to achieve and then use performance measures- including interim targets- to focus people’s thinking and work, and to provide periodic sense of accomplishment. Performance targets may also encourage creativity in developing better ways to achieve the goal (Been) Thus measure to motivate improvements may also motivate learning.

Almost-real-time output (faster, the better) compared with production targets. Quick response required to provide fast feed-back so Rockford could improve and adapt. Also it is able to provide how workforce currently performing. Primary aim behind the measures should be output, managers can not motivate people to affect something over which they have little or no influence. Once an agency’s leaders have motivated significant improvements using output targets, they can create some outcomes targets. “output”- focuses on improving internal process. Outcome”- motivate people to look outside the agency (to seek way to collaborate with individuals & organizations may affect the outcome produced by the agency) 5. To Celebrate Organizations need to commemorate their accomplishments- such ritual tie their people together, give them a sense of their individual and collective relevance. More over, by achieving specific goals, people gain sense of personal accomplishment and selectors (Locke & Lethal 1984). Links from measurement to celebration to improvement is indirect, because it has to work through one of the likes- motivation, learning…

Celebration helps to improve performance because it brings attention to the agency, and thus Dedicated people who promotes its competence- it attracts resources. Ant to work for successful agency. Potential collaborators. Learning-sharing between people about their accomplishments and how they achieved it. Significant performance targets that provide sense of personal and collective accomplishment. Targets could ones used to motivate. In order for celebration to be a success and benefits to be a reality managers need to ensure that celebration creates motivation and thus improvements.

By leading the celebration. 6. To Promote How can public managers convince political superiors, legislators, stakeholders, journalists, and citizens that their agency is doing a DOD job. (National Academy of Public Administration’s center for improving government performance- NAP 1999) performance measures can be used to: validate success; justifying additional resources; earn customers, stakeholder, and staff loyalty by showing results; and win recognition inside and outside the organization. Indirectly promote, competence and value of government in general.

To convince citizens their agency is doing good, managers need easily understood measures of those aspects of performance about which many citizens personally (“National Academy of Public Administration-NAP” in its study of are. Early performance- measurement plans under the government performance and results Act) most plans recognized the need to communicate performance evaluation results to higher level officials, but did not show clear recognition that the form and level of data for these needs would be different than that for operating managers.

Different needs: Department head/ Executive Office of President/ Congress. NAP suggested for those needs to be more explicitly defined- (Kaplan & Norton 1994) stress that different customers have different concerns(1 992). 7. To Learn Learning is involved with some process, f analysis information provided from evaluating corporate performance (identifying what works and what does not). By analyzing that information, corporation able to learn reasons behind its poor or good performance. However if there is too many performance measures, managers might not be able to learn anything. Never of National Academy of Public Administration 1986) Because of rapid increase of performance measures there is more confusion or “noise” than useful data. Managers lack time or simply find it too difficult to try to identify good signals from mass of numbers. Also there s an issue of “black box” enigma (data can reveal that organization is performing well or poorly, but they don’t necessarily reveal why). Performance measures can describe what is coming out of “black box” as well as what is going in, but they do not reveal what is happening inside.

How are various inputs interacting to produce the output. What more complex is outcome with “black box” being all value chain. Benchmarking is a traditional form of performance measurement which facilitates learning by providing assessment of organizational performance and identifying possible solutions for improvements. Benchmarking can facilitate transfer of know-how from benchmark organizations. (Cousin et al. 1 999) Identifying core process in organization and measuring their performance is basic to benchmarking. Those actions probably provide answer to issue presented in purpose section of the learning.

Measurements that are used for learning act as indicators for managers to consider analysis of performance in measurement’s related areas by revealing irregularities and deviations from expected data results. What to measure aiming at learning (the unexpected- what to aim for? ) Learning occurs when organization meets robbers in operations or failures. Then corporations improve by analyzing those faults and looking for solutions. In public sector especially, failure usually punished severely- therefore corporations and individuals hide it. 8. To Improve What exactly should who- do differently to improve performance?

In order for corporation to measure what it wants to improve it first need to identify what it will improve and develop processes to accomplish that. Also you need to have a feedback loop to assess compliance with plans to achieve improvements and to determine if those processes created forecasted results improvements). Improvement process also related to learning process in identifying places that are need improvements. Develop understanding of relationships inside the “black box” that connect changes in operations to changes in output and outcome. Understanding “black box” processes and their interactions. How to influence/ control workforce that creates output. How to influence citizens/ customers that turn that output to outcome (and all related suppliers) They need to observe how actions they can take will influence operations, environment, workforce and which eventually has an impact on outcome. After that they need to identify actions they can take that will give them improvements they looking for and how organization will react to those actions ex. How might various leadership activities ripple through the “black box”. Principles of performance measurement All significant work activity must be measured. Work that is not measured or assessed cannot be managed because there is no objective information to determine its value. Therefore it is assumed that this work is inherently valuable regardless of its outcomes. The best that can be accomplished with this type of activity is to supervise a level of effort. Unmeasured work should be minimized or eliminated. Desired performance outcomes must be established for all measured work. Outcomes provide the basis for establishing accountability for results rather than just requiring a level of effort. Desired outcomes are necessary for work evaluation and meaningful performance appraisal. Defining performance in terms of desired results is how managers and supervisors make their work assignments operational. Performance reporting and variance analyses must be accomplished frequently. Frequent reporting enables timely corrective Timely corrective action is needed for effective management control. Action. If we don’t measure How do you know where to improve? How do you know where to allocate or re-allocate money and people? How do you know how you compare with others? How do you know whether you are improving or declining? How do you know whether or which programs, methods, or employees are producing results that are cost effective and efficient? Common problems with measurement systems that limit their usefulness: Heavy reliance on summary data that emphasizes averages and discounts outliers. Heavy reliance on historical patterns and reluctance to accept new structural changes (or re-design of processes) that are capable of generating different outcomes, like measuring the time it takes them to do a task. Heavy reliance on gross aggregates that tend to understate or ignore distributional contributions and consequences. Heavy reliance on static, e. G. , equilibrium, analysis and slight attention to time-based and growth ones, such as value-added measures. Local Literature and Studies Even before it became a signatory to the UN Convention on the Rights of he Child (UN CRY), the Philippines had already enacted a law to ensure that the voices of children and young people were heard on issues that directly concerned them.

So far, it is the only country in the world to have a grassroots- based, government-funded political structure for young people that is recognized nationwide. Republic Act No. 7160, also known as the Local Government Code of 1991, formed the Justinian Eng Kaftans (K) to tap and harness the energy, enthusiasm, and idealism of young people. Those aged 15 to 17 years old in a barbarian could register in the K and have the right to vote ND be voted into a governing body called the Sanguinary Kaftans (SKI).

The SKI chairperson assumes a seat in the Barbarian Council, and is given full powers and authority like any member of the Council. The idea is truly ahead of its time: a pioneering effort that sets the Philippines apart. The law sets the stage for the youth to acquire leadership skills by actually becoming leaders: learn how to speak and be heard in the world of adults, and be empowered to create programs and policies that will help solve society problems. R. A. 7160 is now more than a decade old. Policymakers are divided in determining whether or not he SKI has served its purpose.

Some argue that the SKI introduced young people to political patronage and maneuvering instead of nurturing and strengthening idealism. There is also a perception that the SKI has not engendered genuine youth participation since most of its members hail from well-to-do or political families. On the other hand, there are those who believe that the Ski’s plentifully has yet to be explored. In the 2003 Second National Consultation Workshop on Child Soldiers in the Philippines, participants identified the SKI as one of the potential partners toward increased youth participation in the aiming against the use of children as soldiers.

These debates led to proposals to abolish or change the SKI. In Congress, House Bill 185 was filed to seek the Ski’s abolition, while the SKI Reform Bill introduces changes to the law. As these are not based on empirical studies, the government asked the United Nations Children’s Fund (EUNICE)-Manila they found out that that involvement in governance at the local level can help develop young people’s leadership skills and confidence. Through participation in the democratic process, young people are empowered.

They gain experience and learn new skills, come responsible and accountable, develop confidence, and forge meaningful connections with other youth and adults. The SKI, the governing body of the K, was designed to make this happen. SKI officers represent the youth in their respective local government councils and have the same functions and privileges as any member of the council. They have a term of three years and receive 10 percent of barbarian funds for youth projects. So far, only three, instead of four SKI elections, have been held since 1 992 due to several amendments to the regular three-year term of SKI officials.

Specifically, the functions of the SKI are to: promulgate resolutions necessary to carry out the objectives of the youth in the barbarian; initiate programs designed to enhance the social, political, economic, cultural, intellectual, moral, spiritual and physical development of the members; conduct fundraising activities; consult and coordinate with all youth organizations in the barbarian for policy formulation and program implementation; and coordinate with the appropriate agency for the implementation of youth development projects and programs at the national level.

A study showed that both youth and representatives from government agencies do not have a thorough understanding of the SKI and its activities. The Ski’s most significant function- the ability to make policies and resolutions-did not make it to the list of top three SKI roles in the survey. Based on the Youth Attributes, Participation, and Service Providers (YAPS) study NYC conducted in 2004, the youth believe that the SKI should create role models for them, and organize sports and youth activities.

Asked the same question, government officials said the SKI should: 1) Develop and initiate youth programs; 2) Serve as role models for the youth; and 3) Legislate measures to promote youth development. The study revealed that the youth’s interests vary across age brackets: those who are 15-arrears old shared the same level of interest in sports and recreation, studies and employment; while those between 25-30 are more interested in studies, worriment’s, and skills upgrading. In terms of priorities, the 15-17 age bracket ranked studies as top priority, and those in brackets 18-24 and 25-30 said family was their top priority.

In addition, the 25-30 age groups ranked the need to find a decent job as second priority. The study also showed that the youth are concerned about three main issues: Health: related to drug and substance use and abuse, and sexual risk behaviors; Education: access to affordable education and to tertiary education, as well as accessibility to newer forms of information, communication and technology; and Employment: job availability as the top concern of those in the 18-24 age None of the participants in the study raised concerns over youth groups. Articulation issues. However, those who attended the 2001 Regional Youth Summits raised the following: Government-related problems; The SKI; Lack of active participation of the youth; Lack of information on programs for the youth; Insufficient and inefficient budget allocation; and Suppression of student rights Studies also show that the youth are worried most about corruption at the barbarian and municipal levels. They are concerned about abusive politicians who engage in nepotism and Marco-politics and meddle in election results via vote buying.

Some participants complained local government authorities use SKI officials as ‘tools’ in advancing their political agenda. They are dismayed over the lack of existing programs for the youth, and lack of support in terms f funding and implementation of existing youth programs that limit their projects to sports activities and street-cleaning initiatives. They say some political interventions stunt the potential of the SKI. SKI officials are also generally perceived as incompetent, inefficient, and lacking initiative.

These concerns reveal the disillusionment, indifference and apathy of the youth sector towards the government and youth-directed government programs. The low levels of youth participation in the SKI and government-related programs, and the popular view that the government is self-serving, manifest these concerns. This lack f faith in the SKI could be borne out of the SKI officials’ lack of understanding of their duties and responsibilities and the SKI structure. They are also unable to navigate through the bureaucracy, create a development plan and budget, and encourage other youth to participate.

Other studies recommend changing the age bracket, currently at 15- 17 years old, because of the youth’s political immaturity. At this age, the youth are also more concerned about studies rather than civic duties. Chapter II PROBLEM STATEMENT A. Definition of the Problem This study aims to focus in the inefficiency of the Sanguine Kaftans in the reference of their function to carry out the objectives of the organization. B. Analysis of Major Stakeholder The major stakeholders of the study are the followings: 1. Sanguine Kaftans.

This is the youth council of every barbarian of the municipality, tasked to carry out the provisions of Section 426, Chapter 8, Book II of the Local Government Code 1991. They play the significant role in the development of youth in the community. The SKI chairman 2. Pyongyang Pederasty’s Eng mega Sanguinary Kaftans. An organization, composed of the Sanguinary Kaftans chairmen of Barbarian in the municipality, elect from among homeless the president, vice-president and such other officers as may be necessary. The President shall automatically take a seat in the Sanguinary Banyan (SUB) as a member and representative of the youth sector.

The President has the direct participation in the local legislation that he/she may introduce ordinances and resolutions. In this mode, youth sector may properly represented and eventually to resolve their concern and issues. 3. Justinian Eng mega Kaftans (K). The organization of youth in the barbarian composes of the member-youth and the Sanguine Kaftans (SKI) as officers. They are the remarry beneficiaries of all the program/projects of Sanguine Kaftans. Moreover, they are main source of problems which is primary concern of the council in the consideration of policy making.

Hence, need of coordination from them in the different phases of program development to attain success.. 4. Barbarian and Municipal Officials. They have the direct authority in the approval of budget of the Pederasty’s and Sanguinary Kaftans Their direct supervision over the administration of SKI can significantly affect or influence their performances, budgets and kind of programs to be initiated. 5. Concerned National Agencies. They are active in the development of programs, finding ways for the improvement of governance, provides trainings, seminar, workshop and the like for effective leadership.

They also assist Sanguinary Kaftans in the implementation of the youth development programs of the country by issuing memorandums, guidelines and etc. Their expertise and assistance has significant effect to the quality and quantity of the programs. Lack C. Cause and Effect Analysis Chapter Ill METHODOLOGY OF ANALYSIS The researcher conducted series of documents review and index analysis on he accomplished projects of the Sanguinary Kaftans such as Sanguinary Kaftans Annual Accomplishment Reports for the Year 2007-2011. The researcher also conducted interviews to the member Justinian Eng mega Kaftans (K) and observations to locality.