A SCOFF plays a leadership role in business development initiatives and their management. Coos will not have excellent decisions without considering the advices and opinions of the Chief Finance Officers that would contribute to the success of the company. Scoffs are really dedicated into managing the day to day cash flow of the company. In order to manage cash for troubled companies, Scoffs prioritize what needs to be paid. Forecasting cash needs using a 4 to 6 week model works well and helps the Chief Financial Officer identify what needs to be paid and can manage the cash accordingly (Michael Barbarity).
Although the usual focus of the Scoffs are accounting and reporting roles, they must somehow become a leading tragic force within their organization, influencing key stakeholders and executing on the company strategy. This study aims to discover the different leadership styles used by the Chief Finance Officer of both sectarian and non-sectarian institutions. On how well they govern among their subordinates as well as in the whole organization. To also find out the significant difference between the leadership styles of the Chief Finance Officers of various institutions within the University Belt Consortium.
Background of the Study “Leadership is one of the major factors?sometimes it seems the only factor? hat will determine whether an educational organization, be it a school, a college or a university, will succeed or fail”. Siskin (2005:9) This study is about the leadership styles of Chief Finance Officer (SCOFF) of sectarian and non sectarian universities in the university belt consortium. The following universities are the chosen subjects or respondents of the researchers: Areola University is a private, nonsectarian university located in Manila, Philippines, established in 1938 by Florentine Cacao, Sir. S the Areola Law College which was later known as Areola Colleges. Centre Secular University is a private, non-sectarian higher education institution, with an enrolment of over 20,000 students in its three campuses: Manila, Magmata and Mallows. Consolation College Manila is a private Catholic institution in the university belt in front of College of the Holy Spirit and beside Centre Secular University. It was founded in 1902 when the Papal Nuncio offered ten Filipino Sustaining Sisters a house near the Basilica of San Sebastian..
San Sebastian College – Recollects, Manila, is a Catholic Institution of higher learning, duly recognized by the Philippine Government. One of the seven “Recollect” schools in the Philippines, it is owned and operated by the Sustaining Recollect Fathers. University of Santos Tombs in Philippines or the Pontifical and Royal University of Santos Tombs, The Catholic University of the Philippines is known as one of the most populous Catholic universities in the world.
A private Roman Catholic university by the Order of Preachers in Manila, University of Santos Tombs started functioning from April 28, 1611. University of the East- Manila as a private non-sectarian institution of higher learning, commits itself to producing, through relevant and affordable quality education, morally upright and competent leaders in various professions, imbued with a strong sense of service to their fellowmen and their country. There are many leadership styles that can be applied to institutions or organizations, whether sectarian or non sectarian.
One of these is the autocratic leadership style, wherein only one person makes the decision. According to Lenin, Lippies and White, this leadership style is good for employees that need close supervision to perform certain tasks. Another example of leadership style is the democratic, wherein the leader listens to the mama’s ideas and studies them before making the final decision. Team players contribute to the final decision thus increasing employee satisfaction and ownership, feeling their input was considered when the final decision was taken.
Laissez-fairer leadership is also an example of leadership style, wherein the leader gives no continuous feedback or supervision because the employees are highly – experienced and need little supervision to obtain the expected outcome. One of the Coffs duties and responsibilities is to report the financial status of the company accurately. Every stakeholder in the company- including the hardliners employees and other members of the management relies on the accuracy of this information because many decisions are made based on it.
Another example of Coffs duties is to control the cash flow position throughout the company, understand the sources and uses of cash, maintain the integrity of cash, securities and other valuable documents. It also includes the authority to establish accounting policies and procedures for credit and collections, purchasing, payment of bills and other financial obligations. The Coffs job can be a complex one. Successful organizational performance lies on the proper behavior from managers and employees. Leadership can be an evolutionary process in companies.
Business owners who provide leadership can transform an employee from a worker completing tasks to a valuable team member. Leadership skills can help change an employee’s mentality by instilling an ownership mind-set. Employees who believe they have a direct owner-style relationship with the organization often find ways to improve their attitude and productivity (Summons Vitae). Theoretical Framework The theoretical framework of this study is based on the Leadership Continuum plopped by Tantalum and Schmidt.
They believed that leadership styles vary along a continuum. This continuum suggests that when one moves away from the extremely autocratic leadership, subordinate participation and involvement in decision making increases. Four leadership styles arose from this continuum the Autocratic, Consultative, Persuasive, and Democratic. (Principles of Management, 2009). [pick Conceptual Framework The illustration shows the relationship of the dependent variable to the independent variable and by the extension, the effect of the extraneous variable.
The Chief Finance Officer (SCOFF) of sectarian and non-sectarian universities are the independent variable since the nature of their characteristics cannot be changed. The dependent variable is the leadership styles since the nature of it is dependent to the independent variables. Different factors like the duties and responsibilities of the SCOFF that will affect the relationship of the subordinates to the leader will be the extraneous variable like the working environment and relationship itself and the salaries and rewards given to the subordinates because they will directly affect the dependent and independent variables.
The survey questionnaires will serve as a tool to gather relevant data necessary in building foundations to provide baseline information relevant for further analyzing. Statement of the Problem The main purpose of this study is to compare the leadership style of the Chief Finance Officer of non-sectarian and sectarian universities in the university belt consortium. Specifically it will attempt to seek answers for the following questions: 1 . What is the profile of the respondents according to the following variables: 1. Gender 2. Age 3.
Position 4. Name of University 2. What kind of leadership style or strategy that the Chief Finance Officer does when there are conflicts that arise in their department? 3. What are the factors that affect the leadership style of the Chief Finance Officers? 4. Are the leadership styles of Chief Finance Officer effective and efficient to their department? 5. Is there a significant difference between the leadership style of a Chief Finance Officer of non-sectarian and sectarian colleges and universities in the university belt consortium?
Hypotheses There is no significant difference between the leadership style of the SCOFF sectarian and non-sectarian universities in the University Belt Consortium. Leadership style has no effect in job performance and job satisfaction. Assumptions For this study the researchers assumed the following: 1 . The Chief Finance Officer of sectarian universities are conservative in implementation of rules and regulation and their decision. 2. The Chief Finance Office of sectarian and non-sectarian universities are different in their leadership style. . That non-sectarian universities exercise freedom with regards to their religion issue. 4. That Chief Finance Officer of both sectarian ND non-sectarian universities observe strict compliance to the leadership style applied. Significance of the Study This study is significant to the following: Students – This study will help to make awareness of the duties and responsibilities of Chief Financial Officer, how they lead and what makes them a good leader in their future organization.
Schools- This will help the school to improve and promote the essence of having leadership style of the Chief Financial Executive that they can use as a tool in leading their organization. Companies – This study will enable aspiring leaders and managers to enhance heir managerial skills and abilities. Organizations -This study will provide information about leadership that can motivate a leader to achieve one goal and gives authority by influencing, inspiring and initiating actions.
Community – This study can help the community to gain knowledge about what composed and what is the job of the Chief Financial Officers, and will lead in the rightful way. Future Researchers – This study will serve as guide and basis for the researchers to gather more information relating to leadership style of Chief Financial Officer, and to know if there is a difference between the non-sectarian and sectarian schools in terms of having SCOFF.
Scope and Limitations This study will focus on the comparison between the leadership styles of the SCOFF of sectarian and non-sectarian universities in the university belt consortium in terms of democratic, persuasive, consultative and autocratic leadership. How chief finance officer govern the department they belong. The subjects of this study are the Treasurer and/or Chief Finance Officer of sectarian and non- sectarian schools in the university belt consortium. Definition of Terms AUTOCRATIC – wherein only one person makes the decision SCOFF – Chief
Finance Officer CONSULTATIVE- the leader asks and confers with the group members before taking decisions DEMOCRATIC – wherein the leader listens to the team’s ideas and studies them before making the final decision LAISSEZ-FAIRER wherein the leader gives no continuous feedback or supervision because the employees are highly – experienced and need little supervision to obtain the expected outcome LEADERSHIP – ability to lead LEADERSHIP STYLE – manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people NON SECTARIAN – usually a secular institution or an institution which adheres to no particular religious belief or tradition PERSUASIVE- the leader also takes the decision for the group without consultation but persuades them to believe that these will make them more motivated SECTARIAN- non-stock, non-profit educational corporations usually owned by religious organizations particularly by the Catholic and Protestant religions Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Foreign Literature The researchers lengthily quoted the word of the following: Leaders need to be self-aware of how their actions are perceived by those they manage (Moment, 2007). Employees will sometimes mirror the behavior of managers. Egghead (2008) talks about the philosophy of “shadow of a leader,” where the leader demonstrates the wanted behavior (p. 16).
Leaders should model hard work for employees (Weiss, 2000). Egghead (2008) states that “when you repeatedly demonstrate meaningful, positive behavior, people are motivated to follow’ (p. 16). According to Robert Kennedy: “As you browse private profiles you will usually see the schools’ religious affiliation described. In the private school world a non-sectarian school is usually secular institution or an institution which adheres to no particular religious belief or tradition. The opposite of a non-sectarian school is a sectarian school. It will describe its religious affiliation as Roman Catholic, Jewish and so on. ” http://preservatives. About. Com/odd/schools/g/nonsectarian. Tm The field of “educational leadership research involves analyzing the concept of leadership itself, the types and styles of leadership and their relevance to educational settings”( Briggs and Coleman,2007:2) According to Northeast (2010), some researchers conceptualize leadership room the trait aspect, which means a leader has a set of characteristics which make him/her a leader; for others, it is the behavior of the leader which enables him/her to accomplish the goals of the institution. Northeast further argues that for some theorists leadership is a relationship between the leader and followers in terms of power; whereas, some theorist view leadership from the leaders capacity with respect to the skill and knowledge aspect. Some important elements related to leadership as a process are that it involves influence, it occurs in teams, and it involves shared objectives.
Involvement of influence in leadership implies the way a leader affects their subordinates/colleagues. Leadership happens in a “team” which mean that the group is the setting/ situation in which leadership takes place, and it is the team which allows the phenomenon of leadership to happen or to be complete (Morehouse 2010). The qualities of a leader determine a specific style for the leader, which creates positive picture of the leader among subordinates. This constructive opinion about leader may lead towards a positive change in the group members attitude and behavior, which in turn may enhance the subordinates’ job distractions and efficient performance (Gross,2008).
Leaders must have enthusiasm for their work so that it spreads to those whom they supervise. That involves leaders believing in the company in which they work. Aha ability to inspire loyalty and build relationships is a key component of leadership” (Newcomer, 2005, p. 35). ‘The CEO who wants to be a true leader must be the most vivid example of the culture at work. Only then can the CEO inspire passion in the rest of the team” (Heisenberg, Goldsmith, & Somerville, 2002, p. 124). Togged the best out of workers, leaders need to be able to motivate them (Moment, 2007). Leaders should look to all of their employees for new ideas and solutions (Heisenberg, Goldsmith, & Somerville, 2002).
Leaders should also “cultivate, champion, and then support” new ideas and “provide an environment for the development and expression of the entrepreneurial spirit (Heisenberg, Goldsmith, & Somerville, 2002, p. 88). Leaders create the organizational climate to which followers react (Harbinger, 2005). Strategic planning is crucial to guide leadership (Chosen, 2008). Leaders must make clear and specific goals and objectives, be able to communicate those, and make sure that the goals are measurable. Planning and having a strategy are important in order to make initiatives succeed. Managers have to move ideas and initiatives to executable steps that their team can implement (Maddox & Vito, 2008).
A leader has to clearly communicate what is needed (Weiss, 2000). If the employee does not understand what to do, then the initiative is set up for failure. Effective leaders must establish a culture of accountability. “Leaders need to be held accountable to the organization for results, [a] plan must be accountable to the outcomes, and the employees must be accountable for their actions” (Newcomer, 2005, p. 6). There needs to be measurable goals for which everyone can be held responsible. M/thou clear responsibility and accountability, execution programs go nowhere” (Harbinger, 2005, p. 25). Leaders also need to know how to handle and address failure.
Heisenberg et al states that “failure can become the next step of learning, the beginning of another new creative idea” (Heisenberg, Goldsmith, & Somerville, 2002, p. 89). Failure can be a learning experience and should not necessarily be punished. Also by punishing failure, employees may be more reluctant to suggest innovative ideas for fear of failure. Leaders must organize and manage employees. While innovation requires the organized efforts of others to work (Heisenberg, Goldsmith, & Somerville, 2002), the result of not involving everyone is that increased resistance to change can appear (Dooley & Sullivan, 2001). Grafton and Erickson (2007) report that “a team’s success or failure at collaborating reflects the philosophy of top executives in the organization.
Teams do well when executives invest in supporting social relationships, [and] demonstrate collaborative behavior themselves (p. 103). Lack of widespread company support can make initiatives fail (Strobes, 1996). Leaders need to be able to adapt to “shifting circumstances” and cope with those changes (Moment, 2007). “Every organization needs leaders who can change as fast as market conditions do” (Newcomer, 2005, p. 34). Business needs can change rapidly and employees look to their leaders to guide them through change. Uncertainty in leaders can lead to a lack of faith by employees. Leaders are important for promoting ethical standards and for modeling ethical behavior and promoting it to employees (Standby, 2009).
Leaders need to be honest and accountable for their actions (Heisenberg, Goldsmith, & Somerville, 002). For employees to practice ethical behavior, “they must work in an environment where that behavior is encouraged and supported” (Duncan, 2002, p. 685). Professionals are expected be truthful and “stand accountable for their mistakes and in turn expect the same from their subordinates (Heisenberg, Goldsmith, & Somerville, 2002, p. 63). Employees should be treated equally. Managers should not ignore exemplary or poor behavior. Rather, effective leaders should reinforce good behavior and negatively reinforce bad behavior, and should avoid making blanket statements (Weiss, 2000).
If employees see unequal treatment and do not get rewarded for their extra effort, that extra effort may disappear. Everyone should be treated the same (Weiss, 2000). Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. This definition is similar to Northerners (2007, pa) definition ? Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. Http://www. Unlink. Com/?download/leader/leaden. HTML Adapted from “The Wall Street Journal Guide to Management” by Alan Murray, published by Harper Business.
Leadership is less about your needs, and more about the needs of the people and the organization you are leading. Leadership styles are not something to be tried on like so many suits, to see which fits. Rather, they should be adapted to the particular demands of the situation, the particular requirements of the people involved and the particular challenges facing the organization. Http://www. Sibylline. Com/2006/07/leadership-styles-men-and-women-lead -differently-but-effectively/ Leadership is one with the most dynamic effects during individual and organizational interaction. In other words, ability of management to execute “collaborated effort” depends on leadership capability.
Lee and Chuan (2009), explain that the excellent leader not only inspires subordinates potential to enhance efficiency but also meets their requirements in the process of achieving organizational goals. HTTPS://docs. Google. Com/viewer? URL=http://YMMV. Jabber. Com/articled/Jabber_17 _16i1n7a11 . PDF The cognitive science leadership literature is an area of research and theory containing a wide range of approaches that are united by their focus on explaining the way leaders and followers think and process information. This literature includes a broad range of topics such as self-concept theory, metrifications, and implicit leadership theory (e. G. , Lord & Enrichment).
One of the more recent developments in the literature has been an attempt to develop models of leadership cognition. Lord & Hall (2005) developed a model of leadership development that emphasized the leader’s cognitive attributes or abilities. A second model was developed by Muffed et al. (2003) and examined the way shared thinking contributed to leader creativity. These two approaches illustrate a fundamental way in which views of leadership cognitions vary, with he former focusing on activities with the individual leader and the latter focusing on interactions that occur between individuals (Muffed et al. 2007). One might ask leaders the question, Do you feel there is something missing in the work that you do and the way you lead others?
Many authors have referred to that void and have attempted to examine how a greater sense of spirituality in the workplace may be fostered. The research on workplace spirituality also now includes a focus on spiritual leadership?defined as “comprising the values, attitudes, and behaviors that are necessary to intrinsically motivate one’s self ND others so that they have a sense of spiritual survival through calling and membership” (Fryer’s, p. 711). Dent et al. (2005) examined how spirituality and leadership was defined in the literature and concluded, “The field of study is marked by all of the typical characteristics of paradigm development including a lack of consensus about a definition of workplace spirituality’ (p. 626).