Leadership Styles

Using the Wick and Stifle model “Conditions That Create Corporate Culture” (2001), achievement would serve as one of the core beliefs of a learning organization, around which its embers’ values, practices, and attitudes revolve (p. 125). Therefore, it appears very likely that teachers would be motivated by these salient factors.

Based on that rudimentary information, it seems prudent that school leaders should incorporate into their leadership practices skills that encourage, reinforce, and sustain “teachers who are actively engaged in teaching and learning, open to new ideas and approaches, and committed to students” (Ho & Misses, 2005: p. 157). Leaders might also consider their advice that: “a number of personality and motivation traits increase the likelihood that individuals can and will engage in effective leadership efforts to influence others” (p. 08). Based on the evidence concluded by Ho and Misses (2005), leaders who possess the following characteristics will motivate teachers: self-confidence, stress tolerance, emotional maturity, personal drive, power needs, achievement orientation, and high expectations for success (up. 380-381 Armed with this information, this group of four graduate students set out to answer the research question: To what extent do principals’ leadership traits influence teacher motivation? An Examination of Leadership Styles and Teacher Motivation 3

Considering the important work that teachers tackle and accomplish daily and year after year, this group sought to better understand what is it, if anything, from school principals that inspire teachers to apply their expertise and efforts toward school and district goals? This particular research question was selected because, according to Christie, Hayes, & Leningrad (2004): “teacher traits and methods account for a higher variation in student achievement than all other aspects of a school combined” (p. 521).

It stands to reason that highly motivated teachers will be more effective in the classroom and lead students toward rater achievement than unmotivated teachers. It may be feasible that school leaders can enhance teacher motivation, thus influence student achievement. This belief is supported by Fallen (2003), who asserts: Let me state at the outset that you cannot do this (produce and sustain a vital public school system) without a dedicated, highly competent teaching force… And you cannot get teachers working like this without leaders at all levels guiding and supporting the process. The principals role is pivotal in this equation (5).

Data Gathering and Analysis The graduate group selected five studies that explored the relationship f two concepts: leadership styles and teacher motivation. These two “abstract terms derived from generalizations across particulars” (Tarter, 2004) were examined, with the subsequent conclusions and implications for future research discussed following these five annotated summaries: Barnett, K, & McCormick, J. (2003). Vision, relationships, and teacher motivation: A case study. Journal of Educational Administration, 41 55-73. Retrieved September 12, 2004 from http://merchandising. Com/09578234. HTML .

The purpose of this case study was to examine transformational leadership behavior the development and immunization of a persuasive vision that inspires and motivates subordinates in four schools. An Examination of Leadership Styles and Teacher Motivation 4 This study revealed what particular factors of a leader’s behavior encourage teachers to apply their expertise and efforts toward that articulated vision (motivation). Methodology After formulating an essential research purpose (what influence does vision have in schools), the researchers extrapolated six research questions for which they sought solutions through a qualitative case study.

The six questions were: 1. What is understood by the term school vision in schools? . What are the foci of school visions? 3. How is schools vision developed? 4. How is commitment to school vision developed? 5. What are the expectations of principals for teachers in schools? 6. What influence does vision have in schools? Four high schools in Australia were selected, distinguished by teachers’ perceptions of leadership practices by principals exemplifying individual concern and vision. Four principals and eleven randomly selected teachers from those four schools were interviewed.

Researchers conducted audio taped, face-to-face interviews consisting of 26 questions posed to principals and 16 to teachers. The transcribed data were sorted independently by the two researchers into patterns (categories), and analyzed via a cross case matrix. Analysis was conducted to identify the comments that characterized different themes, linked by the use of specific language and patterns. The two researchers collaborated on content analysis to identify the patterns and themes from which propositions were generated and conclusions made. Results Each one the six research questions was answered and conclusions drawn.

Vision was defined as purposeful, interactive, and was developed collectively by each school community. The foci of school visions were student achievement and improved teaching and learning. Relationship-centered leadership was identified as key to fostering each vision. Commitment by school staff to that school’s vision was established and maintained through the leader’s constant communication, consistency of behaviors, and demonstrations of individual concern, recognition, shared power, and involvement of all parties in decision-making processes.

The high expectations of the principals were communicated through their actions and provisions of support to the teachers and students. The identified heartsickness of leadership were multiple: participatory, transformational (visionary) while being transactional (managerial), and relationship oriented. Conclusions Although this was a very limited study, it produced several conclusions. Firstly, vision is important to school direction and purpose. Building a shared vision increased both group ownership and the bonding of people involved.

Secondly, while vision is important, it must reflect the needs, interests, values, and beliefs of the school community. Thirdly, vision by itself has little influence on changes in teaching practices and decisions teachers made in the classroom. Finally, leadership is mainly characterized by relationships with individuals, and it is through relationships the leader is able to encourage teachers to apply their expertise and efforts toward shared purposes.

An Examination of Leadership Styles and Teacher Motivation 5 Further research is warranted by larger populations to investigate the relationship of vision to genuine pedagogical change by teachers. 2. Scouts, D. (February 1997). Measuring the degree of success in improving school climate in schools with new principals. Educational Research Information Clearinghouse. Retrieved September 12, 2004 from: http://vim. Eric. Rag Purpose This qualitative study researched the effectiveness of a new principal on school climate.

The researcher sought to examine if and how much effect each new principal with varying leadership styles had on the prevailing personality (climate) of his school, as measured after the first five months of operation. Methodology The study was conducted in three schools: one elementary, one middle school, and one high school. A survey was designed to measure school climate in relationship to these new principals and their leadership styles. The faculty of each school was surveyed at the beginning of the school year, to obtain a gasoline measurement, and then again in January.

Results One principal cited the importance of symbolic leadership through his insistence of being on the job every day, leading from the bottom up. Another principal sought faculty input, while reserving the right to render the final decision. This principal also cited the need to carefully monitor programs toward school goals by effectively supervising the staff. The third was vague, with no real response. Owen, a researcher of school climate, indicates that school climate includes the characteristics of people who comprise the organization: their needs, titivation, and disposition.

Another characteristic was a social system, the organizational structure of a school. He also states that teachers’ internal commitment to the organization and their students’ results are directly related to school climate. School climate is based on the individual perception of what is important to them. The predictors identified from the surveys significant for school climate were: effectiveness of instructional leadership; opportunity to learn; clarity of instructional goals and objectives; monitoring of student progress; student discipline; communications of expectations for success.

The results indicate that new principals had no clear impact on school climate. 3. Davis, J. , & Wilson, S. M. (2000). Principals’ efforts to empower teachers: Effects on teacher motivation and job satisfaction and stress. Educational Research Information Clearinghouse. Accessed September 12, 2004 from:http://search. Pent. Com/login. Asps? Direct=true=cookie. IP. URL. Did An Examination of Leadership Styles and Teacher Motivation 6 Purpose The study attempted to determine whether there is a significant relationship between principal empowering behaviors (PEE) and teacher motivation, teacher bob satisfaction and teacher job stress.

Methodology The researchers used Pogo and Merrill’s Model of Empowerment because it addressed empowerment from the intrinsic perspective. A second model (The Thomas and Pilothouse Cognitive Model of Empowerment) measured power and choice. This study consisted of teachers and principals from eastern Washington. 44 schools of the original 56 participated in the study, with 660 elementary teachers and 44 principals responding to the survey. The designed questionnaire measured four variables: principal empowering behavior, motivation, job satisfaction, and job stress.

Seven questions were posed in each category, with a seven point ranking scale. The researchers’ finding indicated a substantial difference between how teachers and principals rated the four items. Consequently, the scores were averaged. Results The study revealed a significant relationship between the Principal Empowering Behavior items and teacher motivation. Each school building’s results were summarized. The researchers found that the higher the PEE scores per building, the higher the teacher motivation in that building.

They also found that teacher motivation is related to job satisfaction and job stress. However, the PEE was not found to relate to teacher job satisfaction nor teacher job stress. Conclusion As principals engage in more personally empowering behaviors, the degree of teachers motivation increases. However, the factors of meaning and competence were not impacted by Pees. Teacher motivation has a relatively strong relationship to being satisfied in their position and perceived job stress. 4. Galleried, K. (1992). The effectiveness of principal leadership style on teacher motivation.

Retrieved September 12, 2004 from http://Eric. Deed. Gob/Earl Detail&_urltype=actions&object ID+0900000b801380c9 Purpose This study explored the relationship of leadership style and teacher motivation. It also examined the need by administrators to give teachers opportunities to perform professionally so they can perceive their roles as important, and value improvement. Additionally, research was conducted to examine if giving the teachers personal responsibility through participation in decision-making and policy formulation motivates teachers and improves teachers’ self-image.

An Examination of Leadership Styles and Teacher Motivation 7 Methodology Galleried selected the Teacher Morale Survey to study teacher motivation. For this research, this unit of analysis was disseminated to a population of 30 – 40 graduate students (all of whom were certified teachers). The findings were tabulated in terms of means and standard deviations. The data from this study led to the acceptance of the Null hypothesis: Teachers who work under democratic and transactional administrators do not have a significantly higher motivational level than those who work under laissez-fairer or dictatorial administrators.

Results Galleried concluded from these studies that the leadership style and its effect on teacher motivation suggest the traits of the leader are important to group effectiveness; however this is only one factor among many. There is considerable evidence that administrators who seek to release the potential of organization members need to produce opportunities for teachers to feel more responsibility in their role, and to perceive the situation as one in which improvement is not only possible but highly valued. Teachers need to feel that their contribution to the accomplishment of organizational goals is recognized and valued.

Based on his research, Galleried felt there was no conclusive proof that an administrator’s leadership style has a direct relationship to teacher motivation, therefore there is need to do additional studies. Conclusion The study tended to agree with Goodwill’s (1974) studies conclude that there may not be one best style of leadership behavior. The research reviewed indicates, however, that the principal is the most significant individual in the creation of an effective school. 5. Taylor, D. L. , & Dashiki, A. (January 1994).

Predicting teacher’s sense of efficacy and job satisfaction using school climate and participatory decision-making. Proceedings from the Southwest Educational Research Association: San Antonio. Retrieved September 12, 2004 from: http://WV. Eric. Org Purpose: This quantitative study was conducted to examine the relationship of teacher decisional participation and school climate to teacher’s sense of efficacy and job satisfaction. Methodology Data was collected from a survey constructed in 1988: The National Education Longitudinal Study: The Effective Schools Climate Survey.

This tool was comprised of 60 items that identified eight general variables. The survey was scored on a four point Licker Scale. Results: The role of the principal is instrumental in encouraging collaboration among faculty members. When teachers feel more competent in their job, their positive linings about their role also improve. There was a relative strength of the correlation between efficacy and job satisfaction. An Examination of Leadership Styles and Teacher Motivation 8 The strongest predictor of satisfaction was student discipline management, while the weakest predictor was decisional involvement.

Finally, the last model indicated that job satisfaction is the best predictor of teachers’ feelings of efficacy, with decision- making the weakest predictor of teacher efficacy. Conclusion: Climate was found to be composed of three elements: principal leadership, casualty collegiality, and management of student discipline. Each climate component has a relatively strong association with teachers’ feelings of efficacy resulting in job satisfaction. Each component was as important to teacher effectiveness and job satisfaction as each other component.

Conclusion Researching five studies was an obviously limited exploration of leadership styles’ influence on teacher motivation. Had more relevant data been available to our group, they may have had a bearing on our conclusions, and we may have formulated different hypotheses. Although several key facts about the subjects ere included in the five selected reports, information not acknowledged were: subject demographics (including age, gender, teaching level, experience, and socioeconomic status), student demographics, geographic locations, rural, suburban or urban school district composition, and the overarching politics in each situation.

However, based on the limited known elements of the studies, our dissection of each study revealed that other organizational concepts play an influential role on teacher motivation. The principal concepts (as defined by Ho & Misses, 2005) that emerged from a matrix of the studies relevant concepts see Appendix A) showed motivation is linked to: (1) school culture (i. E. , a sharing of ideas and beliefs); (2) school climate (a particular configuration of enduring school characteristics); (3) power (who has authority to do what, when); and (4) decommissioning (optimizing strategies employed by key personnel of an organization).

An Examination of Leadership Styles and Teacher Motivation 10 Galleried (1997) studied leadership styles and their effects on teachers. His findings revealed teachers preferred a leader who clearly communicated expectations and expressed sentiments that made teachers feel “professional”. This group also selected decision-making roles only when they had a direct bearing on classroom practices. Taylor and Dashiki (1994), who concluded teachers favored leaders who had strong managerial skills and who acknowledged the efforts of teachers, conducted the fifth study.

This group preferred to play a role in instructional decision making, and felt motivated in an environment dominated by a strong sense of collegiality. Implications for Future Studies After examining the compiled results from these five studies, which provide sketchy data at best, it appears this small sampling of teachers are generally titivated by the school climate, their decision-making empowerment (especially those related to pedagogical strategies), the school culture, and the power to express personal choice in the classroom.

Again, based on our narrow exploration, and if evaluated on a continuum of least motivating to most motivating, teachers seem to be less motivated by the leadership style of their principals and more motivated by decision-making empowerment. Therefore, this graduate group has concluded that additional studies are warranted that would apply two emergent hypotheses: Hypothesis # 1: When teacher empowered decision-making changes, then teacher motivation changes.

Hypothesis # 2: The more teachers’ instructional decision-making changes, the degree of motivation changes. An Examination of Leadership Styles and Teacher Motivation 11 These hypotheses could be tested utilizing the Classical Model Ho and Misses (2003) discuss. Their constitutive definition of decision-making is “employing optimizing strategies in seeking the best possible alternative to maximize the achievement of goals and objectives” (300).