Leadership has many meaning; Chapin (1924) said that leadership as a point of popularization for group cooperation. Gardner (1990) leadership as a process of moving a group or groups in some direction. Bennie (2001) says that the leader makes a vision palpable and seductive that other eagerly sign on. Bedpans (2003) leadership is a vital component of change. Tournament (2003) leaders are those who challenge the process, inspire a shared vision, enable others to act a model the way and encourage the heart. There is no one best concept of leadership.
Books and Articles representing ideal varying school of thoughts have been published on the topic of leadership. Leadership has changed considerably during the last hundred years and will continue to change in the future. Nowadays, learning and education are major issues. It is the right of every Filipino to have an access to quality education and support services. Describing Filipino styles of leadership could be a very difficult and serious task. Most researchers and writers term it as dynamic, not static, because the Philippine society is constantly under various pressure were changes are inevitable (Spears, Battista and Galvan 2005).
Filipino Leadership styles must had been a mixture of the east and west, since we had been under Spaniards, Japanese and Americans. This research attains to provide readers with an understanding of leadership styles of Academic Heads and Administrators are different and diverse. The respondents of this research are the Academic Heads and Administrators of Selected Universities and Colleges of Baggie City and Banquet. Conceptual Framework A popular framework for thinking about a leaders “task versus person” orientation was developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton in the early offs.
Called the managerial Grid or Leadership Grid, it plots the degree of task- centeredness versus person-centeredness and identifies five combinations as distinct leadership styles. The Leadership Grid is based on two behavioral dimensions: 1. Concern for People – this is the degree to which a leader considers the needs of team members, their interest, and areas of personal developments when deciding how best to accomplish a task. 2. Concern for Production – This is the degree to which a leader emphasizes concrete objectives, organizational efficiency and high productivity when deciding how best to accomplish a task.
Using the axis to plot leadership “concern for production” versus “concern for people. ” Blake and Mouton defined the following leadership styles. Country Club Leadership – High People / Low production. This style of leader is most concerned about the needs and feelings of members of his/her team. These people operate under the assumption that as long as team members are happy and secure then they will work hard. What tends to result is a work environment that is very relaxed and fun but where production suffers due to lack of direction and control.
Produce or Perish Leadership – High Production/Low People. Also known as Authoritarian or Compliance Leaders, people in this category believe that employee is simply a means to an end. Employee needs are always secondary to the efficient and productive workplaces. This type of leader as very autocratic has strict work rules, policies and procedures and views punishment as the most efficient means to motivate employee. Impoverished Leadership – Low Production/Low People. This leader is mostly ineffective.
He/she has neither a high regard for creating a work environment that is satisfying and motivating. The result is a place of disorientation, dissatisfaction and disharmony. Middle of the Road Management – Medium Production/Medium People. This style seems to be a balance of the two competing concerns. It may at first appear to be an ideal compromise, the necessary giveaway a bit of each concern so that neither production nor people needs are fully met. Leaders who use this style for average performance and believe that this is the most anyone can expect.
Team Leadership – High Production/High People. According to the Blake Mouton Model, this is the pinnacle of managerial style. These leaders stress production needs and the needs of the people equally highly. The premise here is that employees are involved in understanding organizational purpose and determining production needs. When employees are committed to, and have a stake in the organization’s success, their needs and production needs coincide. This creates a team environment based on trust and respect, which leads to high satisfaction and motivation and as a result, high production. Blake Mouton Managerial Grid, n. D. ) There are many different ways to leading others. These leadership styles may be used as guidelines in the future to measure how good a leader actually is. The grid helps to: Builds awareness Strengthen the ability to engage, empower and work effectively with others. Develop willingness to embrace change. Learn skills to help resolve conflict. Define the ability to set clear direction and drive progress. Develop the talent for leading by consensus. Build the skills required to generate continual improvement.
Learn to implement meaningful change. Figure 1. BLAKE AND MOUTON LEADERSHIP GRID Coo entry Club Team Leader Middle of the Road Impoverished Produce of Perish LOW Concern for Production High Conceptual Paradigm Independent Variable Profiles of Academic Heads and Administrators b. Number of years as a Academic Heads and Administrators c. Educational attainment d. Civil Status e. Number of Staff Supervised Dependent Variable Leadership Styles a. Country Club Leadership b. Team Leadership c. Middle of the Road Leadership d. Impoverished Leadership e.
Authority Compliance Leadership Leadership Development Plan for Academic Heads and Administrator of Selected Universities and Colleges of Baggie City and Banquet Expected Output Statement of the Problem The study aims to determine the leadership styles of Academic Heads and Administrators of selected Universities and Colleges of Baggie City and Banquet. Specially the researcher wants to seek the following: 1. What is the profile of Academic Heads and Administrators of selected Universities and Colleges of Baggie City and Banquet in terms of: a. Age b. Number of years as Academic Heads and Administrators d. Civil status e.
Number of people directly supervised 2. How are the Academic Heads and Administrators classified in terms of leadership styles: a. Country Club Leadership 3. Is there a significant difference in he extent to which the Academic Heads and Administrators practice the following leadership styles when grouped according to profile: a. Country Club Leadership Null Hypothesis 1. There is a no significant difference in the extent to which the Academic Heads and Administrators of selected Universities and Colleges of Baggie City and Banquet practice the following leadership styles when they are grouped according to their profile.
Scope and Delimitation’s of the Study This study shall be conducted in selected Universities and Colleges located at Baggie City and Banquet. The selected Colleges and Schools in Baggie City are: Baggie Central University, University of Baggie and University of the Cordilleras. Selected Colleges and Universities in Bennett are: Banquet State University, Eastern Luzon College and Cordillera Career Development College. The researcher will request 20 of each to represent the colleges and universities cited. Definition of Terms Academic Heads. Administrators. Colleges.
Universities. Leadership Styles. Management. Leadership. Algal MO definitions. Wall oz Kim gangway Importance of the Study This study would like to provide Academic Heads and Administrators necessary information to improve their leadership styles and strategies. The output of this study will enable them to enhance their execution plan in improving their leadership styles. The finding and output of this research will help employees, Academic Heads and Administrators’ good insights on how effectively and efficiently work and quality education and services to the people.
This study also aims to guide their actions in attaining high performance evaluation and effective organizational development while working. The output of this study is vital information on how to improve leaderships styles of Academic Heads and Administrators of Universities and Colleges of Baggie City and Banquet. Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES In this chapter, definition of leadership will be provided. Contemporary theories of leadership will be reviewed and group development theories will be visited. These theories will show the many perspectives of leadership within the context of leadership on outdoor education.
There final section of this chapter will summarize the important aspects of leadership style in educational institution. Definition of Leadership Leadership is a process of group influence where a group is simply two or more people (Priest & Gas, 1997). An outdoor leader is a leader in both a moral and a physical sense. The outdoor leader is legally responsible for the learning, the feet, and the positive well being of group members. Morally, the outdoor leader helps the group members to create, identify, work toward, achieve, and share in common goals (Priest & Gas, 1997).
A leader must have many qualities, ranging from technical skills to sound judgment. Priest points out that an often- overlooked element in leadership is the possession of a flexible leadership style. Stool, maintains that leaders are people who “increase stress in a system in order to increase disequilibrium . Until the pain of remaining in the status quo is more painful than the pain of changing to a higher order, which means that in significant number of cases, leadership and authority are antithetical” (Stool, 1991 , as cited in Cash & Phipps, p. 5). Leaders in all situations must be prepared to make decisions that will change the status quo and then be prepared to lead the people in the new direction until they are familiar with the course enough to follow it voluntarily. In outdoor education things change rapidly requiring a leader who is flexible and able to recognize the difference between situations that require change and those that do not. Phipps (1984) identified the qualities of leadership as courage, compassion, service, and willingness.
Phipps, analyzed the qualities of leaders as portrayed in classical literature, from Miguel De Cervantes’ Don Quixote to Hermann Hose’s Journey to the East, and found that all leaders share these character attributes, although their styles of leadership may be different. Leaders may share common characteristics and leadership traits but they each bring a unique personality to their leadership position. Their leadership is shaped by their personality and defined with the amount of authority they enjoy and the opportunities to exercise leadership.
Leadership characteristics are the basis of leadership hero. The current theories of leadership developed incrementally through the evolution and testing of the theories. In reviewing the development of leadership throughout history teachers can see how leadership theory has evolved. The theories discussed in the following section will consider current theories of leadership. The History of Theories of Leadership The following paragraphs describe contemporary theories of leadership. The trait theory of leadership was one of the first to be studied in the early sass’s (Morehouse, 1997).
This theory defines the character traits that make people into leaders. These “great man” theories “focus on identifying the innate qualities and characteristics possessed by great social, political, and military leaders” (Morehouse, 1997, p. 13). In the mid sass’s, this theory was challenged by research that questioned the universality of leadership traits. Stodgily (1948) suggested that there was no consistent set of traits that differentiated leaders from non leaders across a variety of situations.
Rather than consisting of a fixed set of traits, leadership was a relationship among people in a social setting. In recent years, however, the trait approach has received new interest (Barman, 992). Research in trait theory has discovered that leaders possess the following characteristics: intelligence, alertness, insight, responsibility, initiative, persistence, self-confidence, and sociability (Stodgily, 1974). These qualities however, do not ensure that an individual will, become a leader. The traits must be relevant to the situations in which the leader is functioning.
Stodgily (1974) published a later survey which identified the following personality traits: Drive for responsibility and task completion Vigor and persistence in pursuit of goals Venturesomely and originality in problem solving Drive to exercise initiative in social situations, self-confidence and sense of personal identity Willingness to accept consequences of decision and action Readiness to absorb interpersonal stress Willingness to tolerate frustration Ability to influence other persons’ behavior Capacity to structure social interaction systems to the purpose at hand Stodgily also mentioned that the situation is an important factor in determining whether or not an individual assumes a leadership position. The style approach of leadership differs from the trait approach, in that it emphasizes the behavior f the leader, and not his or her personality characteristics. Fleischman put it like this: “The shift in emphasis… Was from thinking about leadership in terms of traits that someone ‘has’ to the conceptualization of leadership as a form of activity (Fleischman, 1973, p. 3). The style approach focuses on what leaders do and how they act, including toward subordinates. There are two styles of leadership that were identified by Fleischman: task behaviors and relationship behaviors.
Task behaviors focus on goal accomplishment, and relationship behaviors focus on helping subordinates feel comfortable with themselves and tit each other. Researchers at the Ohio state university analyzed the style approach and found that two general types of leader behaviors were recognized by subordinates: initiating structure and consideration. Initiating structure behaviors were task- oriented, involving such things as organizing the work, defining work roles and setting responsibilities. Consideration behaviors were relationship behaviors, including building camaraderie, respect, trust, and affection among leaders and followers. Researchers at the University of Michigan conducted a study that identified two hypes of leadership behaviors: employee orientation and production orientation.
The first describes the behavior of leaders who deal with subordinates in a humanitarian manner, taking an interest in workers and showing respect for their individuality. The second style, production orientation, refers to leadership behaviors that stress the technical and production aspects of a job (Bowers & Seashore, 1966). All other leadership styles were conceptualized to be within a continuum running from the one style to the other. Fiddler (1974) conducted extensive research into the contingency model of leadership effectiveness. The Contingency theory of leadership explains that leaders are matched to certain situations. A leader’s effectiveness depends on how well his or her leadership style fits the situation (Fiddler & Schemers, 1974).
In order to understand the performance of leaders, it is important to understand the situations in which they lead. Fiddler (1974) determined that three dimensions of a situation have a critical affect on the leader’s effectiveness: leader-member relations, or the degree of trust between the leader and group members; task structure, or the degree to which the task can be specifically defined; and position power, which s the amount of formal power the leader has because of the position he or she occupies. Fiddlers research supported the idea that the situation is favorable for a leader when the leader is liked, trusted, has good relations with the members, the task is highly structured, and the position power is high.
Path-Goal theory deals with how leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish desired goals. Path- goal theory appeared in the sass’s. The goal of path-goal theory is to enhance employee performance and employee satisfaction by focusing on employee motivation. In this theory, the challenge for the leader is to adapt his or her adhering style to the characteristics of the subordinates and the work setting (Evans, 1970). The leader-member exchange theory emphasizes leadership as a process that is concerned with the interactions between leaders and followers. There is a dyadic relationship between leaders and followers, and this is the focal point of the leadership relationship.
There are two types of linkages that exist within the dyads: expanded and negotiated role responsibilities (extra-roles, called the in-group), and formal contract (defined roles) called the out-group. Whether braininess belong to one group or the other depends on how well they take it Upon themselves to expand their work role and their relationship with the leader (Danseuses & Hag, 1975). Transformation leadership, a current approach, describes leadership that transforms organizations and individuals and leads change proactively. Transformational leadership raises the level of motivation in both the leader and the followers. It signals a basic and fundamental change in the organization. Charisma is an integral part of transformational leadership (Burns, 1978).
Mahatma Gandhi is an example of a transformational leader. These theories roved a foundation of understanding in what characteristics leaders have and how one can obtain those characteristics. The theories describe a wide variety of leadership experiences and situations. The theories identify many of the traits of people who have proven leadership skills. Theories also attempt to explain the skills needed for specific situations and the dynamic nature of leadership situations. Although each theory has validity given the combination of personality of the leaders and group, situation and skills of the leader, the most prominent or important theory is the situation theory.