Leadership Substitute Theory

The word communication comes from the Latin communicate meaning “to transmit,” 1 and this describes the purpose of communication, which is to place with all people a common knowledge and feelings with respect to a certain detail or group of details. We have no precise data on when and how the first act of communication occurred only suppositions and conjectures that cannot be proven. Remember that our planet is estimated to be 4. 5 billion years old, and for 3 billion of those years life existed only in the oceans.

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Animal life began approximately 500 million years ago, and Homo Sapiens made his appearance mere 40 thousand years ago. During all these millennia there have been undeniable acts of communication. Communication as an academic discipline, sometimes called the human science of “communication,”Communication is the activity of conveying meaningful information. Communication requires a sender, a message, and an intended recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the senders intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space.

Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. It is the process of sharing our ideas, thoughts, and feelings with other people and having those ideas, thoughts, and feeling misunderstood by the people we are talking with . When we communicate we speak, listen, and observed. The way we communicate is a learned style. As children we learn from watching our parents and other adults communicate. As an adult we can learn to improve the way we communicate by observing others who communicate effectively, learning new skills, and practicing those skills.

It is a two-way process that involves getting your message across and understanding what others have to say. It involves active listening, speaking and observing . The ability to effectively communicate at work, home, and in life is probably one of the most important sets of skills a person needs. What would our life and world be like without communication? We cannot get along without it. It is also not easy, and we all have probably had experiences where our communication failed or ran into a barrier.

So, if we can understand the communication process better and improve it, we will become a more effective and successful communicator. There are different Types of communication. And these will ask how do we monomaniac? Most animals communicate with each other in some way. Dogs bark at those they perceive as a threat in order to communicate their hostility and in some cases the threat that they will attack if provoked; bees have a pouch in which they carry the scent of their hive so as to identify themselves as members of the community.

Messages can be either conscious or subconscious, because we actually communicate things to others,without even knowing that we are doing so. We communicate by talking with each other, testing each other, writing letters or emails, signing, and through our non verbal communication. There are many ways to communicate, and each person’s style is different. However, it is only in humans that communication breaks off into different types of communication: verbal and non-verbal, and formal and informal.

Verbal communication is at the heart of any relationship, be it f business, romantic,or friendly, While there has been significant advances i we understand body language and other forms of communication, verbal communication continuous to be the most important aspect of our interact with other people. It’s important aspect of our interaction with other poop important to understand both the benefits. Nonverbal communication is any kind of communication not involving w When the term is used, most people think of facial expressions and gesture while these are important elements of nonverbal communication, they AR the only ones.

Nonverbal communication can include vocal sounds that AR words such as grunts, sighs, and whimpers. When communicating, envy messages can interact with verbal messages in six ways: repeating, conflict complementing, substituting, regulating and accenting/moderating. “l . Repeating” consists of using gestures to strengthen a verbal message, such pointing to the object of discussion. 2. Conflicting- Verbal and nonverbal messages within the same interaction can sometimes send opposing or conflicting messages.

A person verbally expressing a statement of truth w simultaneously fidgeting or avoiding eye contact may convey a mixed mess the receiver in the interaction. Conflicting messages may occur for a varied reasons often stemming from feelings of uncertainty, ambivalence, or furs [23] When mixed messages occur, nonverbal communication becomes the primary tool people use to attain additional information to clarify the situ great attention is placed on bodily movements and positioning when Poe receive mixed messages during interactions,3.

Complementing- Accurate interpretation of messages is made easier when nonverbal and verbal communication complement each other. Nonverbal cues can be used to elaborate on verbal messages to reinforce the information sent when try achieve communicative goals; messages have been shown to be remember better when nonverbal signals affirm the verbal exchange,4,]Substituting- Nonverbal behavior is sometimes used as the sole channel for communion a message.

People learn to identify facial expressions, body movements, a body positioning as corresponding with specific feelings and intentions. Nonverbal signals can be used without verbal communication to convey messages; when nonverbal behavior does not effectively communicate a message, verbal methods are used to enhance understanding,5. Regulating Nonverbal behavior also regulates our conversations. For example, touch someone’s arm can signal that you want to talk next or interrupt, 6.

Accent Moderating – Nonverbal signals are used to alter the interpretation of ever messages. Touch, voice pitch, and gestures are some of the tools people u accent or amplify the message that is sent; nonverbal behavior can also b o moderate or tone down aspects of verbal messages as well. For example person who is verbally expressing anger may accent the verbal message b shaking a fist. Dance is a form of nonverbal communication that requires t same underlying faculty in the brain for conceptualization, creativity and memo as does verbal language in speaking and writing.

Means of self-expression, both forms have vocabulary (steps and gestures in dance), grammar (rules for putting the vocabulary together) and meaning. Dance, however, assembles (choreographs) these elements in a manner that more often resembles poetry, tit its ambiguity and multiple, symbolic and elusive meanings. Functions of nonverbal communication Argyle (1970) [12] put forward the hypothesis that whereas spoken language is normally used for communicating information about events external to the speakers, non-verbal codes are used to establish and maintain interpersonal relationships.

It is considered more polite or nicer to communicate attitudes towards others non-verbally rather than verbally, for instance in order to avoid embarrassing situations. [13] Argyle (1988) concluded there are five primary functions of nonverbal bodily behavior in human communication:[14] * Expire motions * Express interpersonal attitudes * To accompany speech in managing the cues of interaction between speaker and listeners * Self-presentation of one’s personality * Rituals (greetings) Concealing deception Nonverbal communication makes it easier to lie without being revealed.

This is the conclusion of a study where people watched made-up interviews of person accused of having stolen a wallet. The interviewees lied in about 50% of the cases. People had access to either written transcripts of the interviews, or audio tape recordings, or video recordings. The more clues that were available to those itching, the larger was the trend that interviewees who actually lied were judged to be truthful. That is, people that are clever at lying can use voice tone and face expression to give the impression that they are truthful . 15) However, there are many cited examples of cues to deceit,[16] delivered via nonverbal (verbally and visual) communication channels, through which deceivers supposedly unwittingly provide clues to their concealed knowledge or actual opinions. Most studies examining the nonverbal cues to deceit rely upon human coding of video footage (c. F. Fri., 2008, although a recent study also demonstrate doily movement differences between truth-tellers and liars using an automate body motion capture system. ] Effective verbal communication has more to do with listening than it does with speaking because you are always dealing with an audience.

This true no matter whether you are speaking to a crowd of thousand or to a party of one. Listening is key because when you address an audience, no matter the size. Effective formal communication is viewed like dressing for a black tie affair, informal communication is like dressing casually and wearing slippers around the house Much informal communication occurs on a person-to-person basis, in a face-to- face manner, without ceremony or fanfare. Other ways to communicate in an informal manner may include testing, post-it notes.

Formal communication can be considered as communication efforts that are ” dressed up ” to fit custom rules and ceremony For example, in a written letter, the formal communication style will demand that the layout of the piece of written communication follow a specific format that includes the date, header, salutation, body of the letter close signature. Communication through body language. Communication is how human beings interact with the world that surrounds them. There are many forms of communication, some being more effective at conveying the intent or feelings of the individuals expressing, than others.

Many people have time with communication, and can find it difficult to And what are form of communication? These are Human communication spoken and picture languages can be described as a system of symbols (sometimes known as lexemes) and the grammars (rules) by which the symbols are manipulated. Word “language” also refers to common properties of languages. Tell others they think. A widely cited and widely misinterpreted figure used to emphasis the importance of delivery states that “communication comprise 55% body language, 38% tone of voice, 7% content of words”, the so-called rule”.

This is not however what the cited research shows – rather, when conveying emotion, if body language, tone of voice, and words disagree, the body language and tone of voice will be believed more than. The important human communication (oral and written language) From the first human communities (the horde, the clan, the tribe) human beings needed to communicate in order to interact within their group or Soc ricer to meet the challenges posed by survival. We can therefore say that human communication is an intrinsically social phenomenon.

Human been are naturally gregarious, that is, they gather together with others of their kind, live with them, and take part in the evolution and development of thee group. Communication, which in the beginning was rudimentary and based gestures and shouts, gradually evolved to a form of communication observe only in human beings: language. Human beings became able to talk once they could discriminate between sounds and apply specific sounds to certain objects that formed part of their surroundings.

Eventually they became able to formulate subjective and abstract ideas from their feelings and experience that were part of a collective set of social and environmental experiences. A assigning specific sounds to certain objects, the following step was to cone those sounds, now discriminated and articulated, to join them in a logical sequence to form articulated language. Spoken language is characterized by being conventional, tacit and arbitrary. It is conventional because there is an agreement of acceptance among the speakers for naming objects; this agreement is tacit and it is taken for granted.

It is arbitrary because the Cree of each language used their own judgment rather than any logical relations to name an object according to taste or to circumstances. Of course, primitive speakers could have argued over the naming of objects. Written language emerged a long time after oral language, when human thought had evolved sufficiently and our ancestors’ communication needs had become more com especially for carrying out their economic activities. Human beings followed long, slow path to written language.

The Egyptians, for example, developed aerographical, which were nothing more than a pictographic writing system, and which evolved to become ideographs. The Egyptians were thus able to communicate the events of the lives of the Pharaohs, the floods of the Nile, and scientific information. Another form of writing in ancient times was the cuneiform, used by Mesopotamia scribes, which also started out as a pictographic system. It later evolved toward a phonetic system, that is, the sounds of language were represented by letters or graphic signs.

This progress was important for the development of alphabetic writing. A legend says that he alphabet was invented by the ancient Phoenicians and that Cadmic, King of Tubas, had taken it to Greece. It is a historical fact that the Phoenicians were a Semitic people who used 22 Egyptian ideograms to represent the sounds of thee language, which gave rise to phonographic writing. All the alphabets that exist today come either from the Semitic, or from the Greek which led to the Roman; from which all the Romance languages are derived and consequently their alphabets.

We can conclude that the creation of oral language that preceded written language played a crucial role in the evolution of human thought and presents the human being’s developed consciousness and his desire to find a solution to all kinds of needs, including communication. Animal and human communication Human beings became radically different from other animals when they learned to make tools, such as stone axes, wooden cudgels, spears and arrows, which were primitive at first but were the starting point for the technological progress we enjoy today.

In the process of creation and use of simple tools there arose the need for communication among men, which led to articulated language. Communication and articulated language exercised an influence on rain activity, from which it can be deduced that communication created man; and, thanks to communication, society began to develop. These processes of communication and creation are what marked the difference between human beings and animals.

It is this human characteristic of being able to express thoughts that then become transformed into group actions for survival and adaptation which has made civilization possible, and which has led to that complex net of communications the twenty-first century boasts as its main feature. In order to generate these processes of communication, man had to and has to -meet the following requirements: _ Have a biological structure developed in such a way that he can use muscles and senses: hearing, sight, speech, etc. Have enough intelligence to know the set of signs necessary to produce and decode messages. Have the ability to perceive and analyze everything occurring in his environment and to make use of social conventions, which imply a relationship between the signs and the things they represent. Since they have consciousness human beings can report on their present acts and omissions, refer to their past and speculate about their future. In other animals, the processes of communication are automatic, since they depend on an instinctual system derived from the genetic information of each species.

Human beings also inn this instinctive type of reaction; it is common to see the smile on the lips of a newborn baby, or the baby’s response to the smile of its parents; and to he baby’s cry that communicates some discomfort or need. It can be observed that when female cats go into heat, they meow differently from when they are hungry, when they fight, when they show affection or w they call their young. In fact, these are clear cases of animal communication, cause all of them enclose a coded message that causes a reaction in the receiver who is able to decode that message.

The enormous difference bet animal and human communication lies in the fact that the animal’s repertoire communicative acts does not include the past, let alone the future. In spite of the fact that animal communication is based on sounds, these do express thought. Animals lack a meta-language; consequently, they do not h abstraction or creativity, which have been observed only in human beings so Sciences linked with communication All sciences have some association with communication: all transfers of thou ND knowledge among individuals are based on communication.

Among the social sciences, psychology is one of the disciplines closely linked with the process of communication. Psychology and communication Psychology studies the process of communication at the following four levels Tooth individual level refers to the ability of the human being to become a channel in which the individual interprets, synthesizes and codifies reality. O interpersonal level attempts to establish the relationship between individual who communicate, according to each person’s communication skills.

Cootie group level is concerned with the relationships that emerge from the different kinds of human groups, and places emphasis on the various forms communication and development. јјThe mass level deals with the use of psychological knowledge in the social media for the purpose of influencing the individual in his perception, behave attitudes or preferences. It is applied in advertising and propaganda, and AI to create a change in public opinion while at the same time it evaluates and attempts to explain the reactions that mass messages cause in the individual in society. There is a close relationship between psychology and communication.

The former studies personality and behavior, while the latter studies common models or stereotypes in some way governed by the personality and behave of individuals who communicate among each other. It is understood that personality and behavior are affected by the social environment and that HTH environment, in turn, is affected by the media. Intercultural communication Intercultural communication is a relatively recent field of research. Intercultural competence could be defined as the” . Ability to negotiate cultural meaning ND communicate effectively in keeping with the multiple identities of the participants” (Branch XV).

It should be noted, however, that effective communication does not mean a communication that is totally controlled an without ambiguities. Communication theory has repeatedly pointed out that perfect communication, even between interlocutors of the same culture, is truly difficult. People interpret messages according to their own knowledge, which may or may not coincide with that of the author of the messages. In intercultural communication, we may get the impression that the interlocutor s manipulating or misinterpreting our discourse.

However, the problem is not that the interlocutors are manipulating our discourse, but rather that his interpretation is simply based on other criteria. We must bear in mind that interpretations vary from one culture to another, and that they change over time even within one single culture. This clarification regarding interpretation and manipulation is important. We must realize that persons from other cultures are not necessarily making a deliberate misinterpretation or malicious use of our discourse, but rather they are simply applying different interpretative criteria.

We need to be prepared for possible misunderstandings. In order to understand the other person, one must first understand his lack of understanding. What do we mean by effective communication? It could be said that communication is effective when an acceptable degree of understanding is reached between two interlocutors. It is not perfect communication, but simply sufficient. With respect to intercultural communication we face a challenge that is by no means easy. .Communication is not merely an exchange of messages, but rather a construction of sense.

A discourse can have different levels of meaning to which only persons with a good knowledge of the culture of origin can have access. Intercultural communication often implies a certain degree of uncertainty. Uncertainty is a cognitive phenomenon that conditions our communication because it places us in a situation of doubt, or insecurity. Two types of uncertainty can be established: a. Predictive uncertainty: regarding the prediction of attitudes, feelings, beliefs, values, and behavior of people from a different culture.

That is, there is a certain element of doubt when one has to predict the communicative interaction with a foreigner. B. Explanatory uncertainty: regarding the attitudes, feelings, and thoughts of people from a different Couture. It is sometimes difficult to find explanations for certain reactions of foreigners by applying our own cultural criteria. We understand our environment in terms of the social categories that we have acquired in our culture. If we lived in a monoculture community, these categories would be sufficient; however, few societies today are totally monoculture.

Intercultural interaction obliges us to have new categories that make sense of the behavior of others. To acquire a certain intercultural cognitive impotence it is necessary to put meta-communicative processes into practice. We have to meta-communicate, that is, we have to be capable of explaining what we mean when we say something. In intercultural communication, any assumptions or concepts that we take for granted must be explained. This leads to a form of communication that is certainly less agile, but it is indispensable to have a stricter control over the foreign interpretation.

We must not take it for granted that our interlocutor will interpret our message in the way we intend it to be interpreted. In spite of the difficulties noted, it is obviously becoming increasingly important to ensure effective intercultural communication. The following criteria have been established for carrying out an intercultural dialogue: 1. Nothing is fixed. When a dialogue begins we must be open to potential change. 2. There are no universal positions. Everything is subject to criticism. 3. We must learn to accept conflict and the possibility of hurt feelings. . There is a certain element of perversity in the history we have been tat Our identities have been built in opposition to those of others. 5. Nothing is closed. Any question can be reopened at any time. Ways to deliver communication The following are different ways in which information can be communicate group or groups of persons with diverse characteristics and objectives. W materials Posters are a resource for places where there many people go (posters ca seen in the street, hospitals, bus stops, subways, community centers, etc. Poster must be attractive.

Graphic designers should be involved in making make sure that the risk message will reach people in a clear and interests If the poster synthesizes the message and has visual equilibrium, it will p a quick understanding of the message. Its size should be appropriate to t content of the message and to where it is placed. Its durability will depend material used and where it is located; obviously indoor locations will be did from outdoor ones in this respect. The pamphlet is an easy way to reach the public, and it can be given out personally or by mail.

When its contents are preventive, it should have equilibrium and be synthesized as in the case of the posters. The typography and images should also be designed to arouse interest and spur the read preventive action. The design should be attractive enough to arouse the i f the reader and prevent him from throwing it away without reading it. The pamphlet can be the ideal complement of a talk, conference, works video show, or puppet show. It should be written in an informative-peers style and have a clear educational focus. Careful selection of words is recommended so that there will be no ambiguous messages or double meanings.

Flyers distributed in the street have little or no impact. Passers-by often indifferently refuse to receive them, especially in large cities. Another, MO sophisticated, type of publication can be used to reach a public of a higher educational and social level. In recent years there has been a proliferation of science magazines with a well-defined public of students, professionals different fields, teachers, and the general public. Risk communication SSI type of publication is effective because the message is the result of a ides and analysis of the problem.

For example, a description can be made of t sources of air pollution, meteorological processes and the aerographical con that influence them, as well as the impacts on the health of high-risk sect the population (children, the elderly, and persons with respiratory or card robbers) and the need to be alert to the broadcasting of levels of air pollution by the pertinent authorities for the purpose of protecting those high-risk populations. However, since the readership of these publications is relatively small, such efforts will need to be reinforced by other messages through different media.

Audiovisual materials Messages broadcast by radio are for the ear and not for the eyes of the receive Its messages are ephemeral. While the radio speaks or broadcasts music, the listener may be writing, driving his car, running through the park, or reading a book. His attention is not focused; therefore, radio communication always attempts to have the person who hears “prick up his ears” and listen. Radio involves the linguistic code and the sound code. It is important to note that the combination of these two codes makes up a syntax that gives the message the fluidity and rapidity to produce interior visual images in the receiver.

Some radio communicators manage these codes and formats with such dexterity that they are able to attract and dissuade an audience with great facility. Sins radio is the broadcasting method closest to the people, it is the medium that an be given preference for transmitting preventive measures for natural disasters and damage caused by human activities (collisions on the highway, contamination, environmental accidents, alterations in sanitary conditions, et Radio is synthesis, brevity, promptness, simultaneity and rapidity.

It is for that reason that the language and the sounds used should be selected for clarity and simplicity of expression. Radio communicates with a heterogeneous pull with different levels of comprehension. Thus, radio messages should be mad reach all levels of the audience and capture the interest of each one. It has be observed that although there are many messages containing commands, such messages do not necessarily have the expected impact; therefore it is prefer to transmit messages that suggest and persuade.

Preventive messages that are given an advertising format can reach and positively influence the behavior of the receiver. It is better not to use the so track of an audiovisual message, because the audience could err in interpret the message. Care should also be taken in selecting voices for the message; voices associated with advertised products should be avoided. The voice that Aryanism the message on the radio should be clear, well modulated, and with any additional connotation. The radio format calls for a great deal of creative a strict selection of the sound code, and a concise message.

It is important to remember that on the radio we work with suggestion, persuasion, and the hearer’s imagination. Another way to transmit messages about risk could be means of interviews, documentaries, and special reports. Speaking on the radar means explaining, telling a story, and dialogue with the listener. The main characteristics of television are simultaneity, instantiating, and bee current. This medium has developed a technology that accelerates audiovisual information. The viewer is practically one actor more in the events shown by this medium.

Information about surgery to separate Siamese twins in the Ease bomb that exploded in an urban area in a Latin American city, the explosion gas pipeline in Alaska, a train crash in Europe, and many other news items, ca be transmitted in an hour of television. Regional television has an efficient development of journalistic spaces and it broadcasts local, regional and international news, thereby promoting communion interest. Risk communication messages can be inserted here. If the aim is to produce a culture of prevention and protection, the electronic media can certainly participate in this effort.

In order for televised preventive communication to be successful, it must be designed properly. This means managing the three fundamental codes: the iconic code, the sound code, and the linguistic code. In addition to correct codification and format, risk communication done on television must be well placed within the schedule of programs. Special consideration must be given to the segments where it will be included, the timing, the public, and the area of influence of the signal (regional, national and international).

On the other hand, audiovisual messages are fleeting; therefore the selection of images, words, an sounds should take this characteristic into account. Well-designed preventive messages can have a more efficient influence on the behavior of the receivers if they contain a single principal idea adapted to the target public, rather than multiple concepts. Materials targeting television audiences should be prepared with extreme care, taking mass communication into account, as well as the Tim they will be shown, and whether they will be broadcast on private or public channels. Video film is another interesting medium for delivering information.

Although the video involves the recording of programs, it targets a reduced audience. This format is ideal for working with specific audiences (for example, agricultural workers), although it is important to note that it is expensive to produce, and it will be necessary to find the right times and places for showing In this case, the codification varies according to the public to which it is directed The usefulness of this educational method is significant, because it permits the visual expression (with the necessary audio support) of all kinds of educational information to complement the presence of technical personnel.