The British colonists arrived in New Zealand in the sass, and the interaction of the Maori with the colonists exulted in changes to the Maori culture. The traditional Maori leadership system is still in place but there are a number of non-traditional bodies where leaders are both appointed and elected (Nag Tiara, 1992). Traditional Maori Leadership The traditional Maori leadership included key positions such as arias, urinating, outhunt and kumquat (Winning, 1967). The traditional Maori leadership was largely chieftainship, based on mahatma (primogeniture), wakeup, and seniority (Mazurka, 1992).
The family’s first born male in any generation was the arias (paramount chief) who was the leader of the iii (Mazurka, 1992). The arias ad authority to direct war expeditions, resolve disputes, administer the tribe, allocate land and manage communal projects (Winning, 1967). Every hap (sub- tribe) was headed by a urinating (chief) and performed similar functions as the arias but at the hap level (Winning, 1967). The literal meaning of urinating is ‘to weave people together’ (Kennedy, 2000). The arias and urinating discussed important issues and made decisions on behalf of the iii (Mead, 1992).
The outhunt (ritual leader) was a person who was an expert in some field of knowledge and expertise and provided religious, literary and technical expertise Winning, 1956). The kumquat (elder) headed each Hannah. Their leadership was based on age, experience and wisdom (Winning, 1967). The kumquat’s role included the proper control and use of the family, rearing and educating children, Hannah administration, representing the haunt in all iii and hap discussions and keeping rites and lore (Winning, 1967).
In the Maori society, leaders received their mandates by the people’s confirmation (Firth, 1959). The leaders are expected to have knowledge in areas such as food cultivation, managing people and mediation, settling disputes, wood carving, building souses and fortified sites, war strategy and hospitality (Mead, 1992). Maori leaders, at times, used power to influence the people; however major decisions on important matters were discussed by the leaders at public assemblies where decisions were made collectively (Love, 1992).
The traditional Maori society had a well-established leadership structure. Hannah, hap and iii all had leaders to guide and to take decisions about the day to day life in the tribe. In the sass, the arrival of the Europeans had a great impact on the Maori society. Changes in Maori leadership The arrival of the colonist in New Zealand resulted in changes to the traditional Maori leadership structure. The colonists brought missionaries and capitalism with them (Nag Tiara, 1992). The missionaries converted many Maori to Christianity.
The missionaries converted many chiefs to religious teachers and advocates of the western way of life (Winning, 1967). The missionaries began to condemn traditional Maori cultural aspects like warfare, slavery and polygamy. This reduced the chiefs power to sustain the loyalty of his followers (Walker, 1996). The colonists also introduced western education. Chiefs had trained boys in traditional leadership skills such as carving, oratory, and wakeup (Mazurka, 1992). Many Maori boys of chiefly lineage were sent to educational institutions set by the colonist. This reduced the chiefs role as educators.
The colonists introduced musket as trading commodity, which had an adverse effect on the traditional Maori leadership (Winning, 1967). The gun wielding colonists proved to be more powerful than the Maori with traditional weapons. This undermined the chiefs ability in warfare. Furthermore, a number of chiefs exchanged their lands for guns (Nag Tiara, 1992). The treaty of Waiting, which dictated the governing principles between the Maori and Apache also played an important role in diminishing the chiefs role. The treaty s English version suggests that the chiefs yielded their sovereign rights to the Queen of England.
The traditional Maori leaders were excluded from the new government, which weakened the traditional Maori political structure (Winning, 1967). The chiefs authority was further diminished as the Maori were dispossessed of their land by the colonists (Love, Bibb). In the late twentieth century, Maori migrated in large numbers to cities (Mete, 1964). The Maori started to learn about the western culture. This gave rise to a new generation of leaders who alienated themselves from their tribes to fight for their rights (Mete, 1964).
The present Maori leadership The Maori traditional society is now a subsystem of a wider New Zealand society (Winning, 1967). The Maori community is adapting itself to the changes introduced in their society. This has given rise to new type of leaders who differ from the traditional leader who was the chief. A large part of chieftainship was expertise in warfare. As warfare got eliminated from the Maori life, the daily activities enforcing the importance of warfare also disappeared (Winning, 1967). Even though the western culture has affected the Maori culture, many aspects of the Maori society is still intact.
Majority of the Maori today are affiliated to a wake, hap or iii (Nag Tiara, 1992). Et Pun Koori produced a list of guidelines for leadership, which indicated key elements of leadership based on traditional concepts but adopted modern principles to be more applicable in today’s world. Et Pun Koori suggested leadership guidelines to be: The strength of the leader is the strength of the group The leader should serve the people, care for the people and speak for the people. The primary goal of the leader must be the continuity and development of the Maori community. The strength of the leader is the strength of the group. The leader who stands close to his people is a strong leader, whereas a leader who is away from his people is easily assimilated and manipulated by others. A leader is accountable to the people. A leader is a public servant. The modern leader should consult the iii frequently. Modern leadership depends on the reliable exchange of information and device. Leadership requires cooperation between traditional leaders and specialists Flexibility from iii. (Nag Tiara, 1962).
The Gaining movement can be seen as the best example of how the Maori is adapting themselves to the changes around them. In 1857, in an attempt to arrest land sales and to keep the Maori society together, several Waistcoat chiefs came together and started a movement to establish a Maori King (Buick, 1934) Its main aim was to unite the iii of New Zealand and raise voice against the continuing alienation of their land. The Maori leaders in today’s world need to e well educated, sophisticated, very able, grounded to the Maori culture and committed to their iii and their people (Nag Tiara, 1992).
There are several different kinds of leaders within Maori communities, some represent the government, some represent their iii, others represent an organization and some represent themselves (Nag Tiara, 1992). In today’s world, Maori belong and are part of many organizations. Maori organizations and Maori leaders often occupy several different positions and responsibility to fulfill cultural and organizational requirements (Warmouths, 2002). As Maori began to gain education from colonial educational institutions, new leaders emerged.
These new leaders began to take leadership positions in colonial institutions such as parliament. These Maori leadership positions have become important in today’s society due to many institutions requiring Maori leaders, including Mao council, Maori committees, district councils and executives. These institutions have elective structures in which traditional Maori leaders are excluded in favor of elected or appointed leaders (Nag Tiara, 1992). Maori leaders skilled i business and commercial practice have emerged. Maori business leaders play an important role in Maori economic development.