Robbins Organization Behavior Leadership Quiz

Good management brings about order and consistency by drawing up formal plans, designing rigid organization structures, and monitoring results against the plans. Leadership, in contrast, is about coping with change. Leaders establish direction by developing a vision of he future; then they align people by communicating this vision and inspiring them to overcome hurdles. Dif:2 Page Ref: 150 Objective: Management and Leadership Quest.

Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 1 2) Leadership is best defined as A) the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals B) the process of drawing up formal plans and monitoring their implementation C) the process of carrying out the vision and strategy provided by management D) coordinating and staffing the organization and handling day- to-day problems E) the proper use of the influence gained exclusively as a result f one’s organizational position Answer: A Explanation: A) Leadership can be defined as the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals.

Leaders can emerge from within a group as well as by formal appointment. Differ Page Ref: 150 Objective: Leadership LO: 3) Which of the following statements regarding leadership is true? A) All leaders are managers. B) Formal rights ensure good leadership. C) All managers are leaders. D) All leaders are hierarchically superior to followers. E) Unsanctioned leadership is as important as formal influence. Answer: E

Explanation: E) The source of a leader’s influence may be formal, such as that provided by managerial rank in an organization. But not all leaders are managers, nor, for that matter, are all managers leaders. Just because an organization provides its managers with certain formal rights is no assurance they will lead effectively. Unsanctioned leadership?the ability to influence that arises outside the formal structure of the organization?is often as important or more important than formal influence.

Dif: 2 Page Ref: 151 4) Which theory of leadership differentiates leaders from mainlanders by focusing n personal qualities and characteristics? A) Fiddler’s model B) attributes theory C) ELM theory D) contingency theory E) trait theory Explanation: E) Trait theories of leadership focus on personal qualities and characteristics. The search for personality, social, physical, or intellectual attributes that differentiate leaders from mainlanders goes back to the earliest stages of leadership research.

Dif: 1 Page Ref: 151 Objective: Trait Theories LO: 2 5) Early research efforts at isolating leadership traits resulted in a number of dead ends. A breakthrough, of sorts, came when researchers began organizing traits around the Big Five personality framework B) using the Kerrey Temperament Sorter C) using Chattel’s 16 personality factors D) focusing on Essence’s three factor model E) considering the Revised NEO Personality Inventory Answer: A Explanation: A) Early research efforts at isolating leadership traits resulted in a number of dead ends.

By the asses, after numerous studies and analyses, about the best we could say was that most leaders “are not like other people,” but the particular traits that characterized them varied a great deal from review to review. A breakthrough, of sorts, came when researchers began organizing traits round the Big Five personality framework. Most of the dozens of traits in various leadership reviews fit under one of the Big Five, giving strong support to traits as predictors of leadership.

Dif: 2 Page Ref: 151 6) According to research, which of the Big Five personality traits is the most important in effective leaders? A) conscientiousness B) openness C) extroversion D) agreeableness E) emotional stability Answer: C Explanation: C) A comprehensive review of leadership literature, when organized around the Big Five, has found extroversion to be the most important trait of effective leaders but more strongly related to leader emergence than to leader effectiveness.

Conscientiousness and openness to experience also showed strong relationships to leadership, though not quite as strong as extroversion. Dif: 1 Page Ref: 151 LO: 7) Emotional intelligence (El) is critical to effective leadership because one of its core components is A) conscientiousness B) empathy C) optimism D) introversion E) perfectionism Answer: B Explanation: B) A core component of El is empathy. Empathetic leaders can sense others’ needs, listen to what followers say (and don’t say), and read the reactions of others.

The caring part of empathy, especially for the people with whom you work, is what inspires people to stay with a leader when the going gets rough. Dif: 1 Page Ref: 152 8) Which of the following statements accurately reflects the conclusions about the trait theories of leadership? A) Traits were better predictors of leadership 20 years ago than they are now. B) The Big Five traits are inadequate for predicting leadership. C) Traits are especially useful for distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders. D) Traits do a good job of predicting the emergence of leaders.

E) Overall, traits are poor predictors of leadership. Answer: D Explanation: D) Two conclusions can be offered about the effectiveness of the trait theory of leadership. First, traits can predict leadership. Twenty years ago, the evidence suggested otherwise. The Big Five seem to have rectified that. Second, traits do a better job predicting the emergence of leaders and the appearance of leadership than actually distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders. Dif: page Ref: 152 9) Your company’s HRS director is a believer in trait theories of leadership.

He believes that he can differentiate leaders from non-leaders by focusing n personal qualities and characteristics. The HRS director plans to promote Lawrence, a highly extroverted manager with a great deal of ambition and energy to the position poof, Manufacturing. He asks for your expertise in helping him to apply trait theory to leadership selection within your company. The director believes that because of his innate characteristics, Lawrence will be highly effective at helping the company achieve its production goals. You advise the director against basing his decision purely on traits because .

A) research has identified emotional stability as the strongest predictor of leadership effectiveness B) studies have found that the Big Five traits are difficult to identify in leaders C) studies have shown that traits are poor predictors of leadership effectiveness D) research has found that conscientiousness is a better predictor of effectiveness than extroversion E) research has shown that effective managers are often unlikely to become effective leaders Answer: C Explanation: C) Traits do a better job predicting the emergence of leaders and the appearance of leadership than actually distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders. The fact that an individual exhibits the traits and others insider that person to be a leader does not necessarily mean the leader is successful at getting his or her group to achieve its goals. The context matters, too. Dif: 3 page Ref: 152 CABS: Analytic Skills Quest. Category: Application 10) Which of the following theories of leadership implies that individuals can be trained to become leaders?

A) trait theories B) ELM theory C) contingency theories D) behavioral theories E) Fiddler model Explanation: D) The failures of early trait studies led researchers in the late asses through the asses to wonder whether there was something unique in the way effective leaders behave. While trait research provides a basis for selecting the right people for leadership, behavioral studies implied we could train people to be leaders. Dif:2 Page Ref: 152 Objective: Behavioral Theories 1 1) The Ohio State Studies narrowed the independent dimensions of leader behavior to two that substantially accounted for most of the leadership behavior described by employees: consideration and C) constructing vision D) initiating structure E) charisma .

A) employee-orientation Explanation: D) Seeking to identify independent dimensions of leader behavior, the Ohio State Studies determined that two dimensions accounted for most effective leadership behavior: initiating structure and consideration. Initiating structure is the extent to which leaders are likely to define and structure their roles and those of their employees in the search for goal attainment. Consideration is the extent to which a leader’s job relationships are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees’ ideas, and regard for their feelings. Dif: 2 Page Ref. 152 Objective: Ohio State Studies 12) In the context of behavioral dimensions of leadership identified in the Ohio State Studies, initiating structure refers to the extent to which

A) a person’s job relationships are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees’ ideas, and regard for their feelings B) a leader engages in participative management C) a leader is accepting of and respects individual differences among various team members D) a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment E) a leader initiates efforts to communicate personally with employees Answer: D Explanation: D) As a behavioral dimension of leaders, initiating structure is the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those f employees in the search for goal attainment. It includes behavior that attempts to organize work, work relationships, and goals. Dif: 2 Page Ref: 152 Objective: Initiating Structure 13) Kimberley, a manager at a large company, tends to assign group members to particular tasks, expects workers to maintain definite standards of performance, and emphasizes the meeting of deadlines. In the light of the Ohio State Studies, this indicates that Kimberley, as a leader, is B) high in consideration C) relationship oriented D) employee oriented E) high in initiating structure . A) low in task orientation

Explanation: E) Initiating structure is the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment. It includes behavior that attempts to organize work, work relationships, and goals. A leader high in initiating structure is someone who “assigns group members to particular tasks,” “expects workers to maintain definite standards of performance,” and “emphasizes the meeting of deadlines. ” Dif: 3 Page Ref: 152 14) In the context of behavioral dimensions of leadership identified in the Ohio State Studies, is the extent to which a person’s job relationships are hardhearted by mutual trust, respect for employees’ ideas, and regard for their feelings.

A) consideration B) initiating structure C) production orientation D) task orientation E) position power Explanation: A) In the context of behavioral dimensions of leadership identified in the Ohio State Studies, consideration is the extent to which a person’s job relationships are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees’ ideas, and regard for their feelings. Dif: 2 Page Ref: 152 Objective: Consideration 1 5) Jim, a UP at a large company, helps employees with personal problems, s friendly and approachable, treats all employees as equals, and expresses appreciation and support. In the light of the Ohio State Studies, this indicates that Jim, as a leader, is . A) task oriented C) high in initiating structure D) low in relationship orientation E) production oriented Explanation: B) Consideration is the extent to which a person’s job relationships are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees’ ideas, and regard for their feelings.

A leader high in consideration helps employees with personal problems, is friendly and approachable, treats all employees as equals, and expresses appreciation and support. Dif:3 Page Ref: 152 16) The two dimensions of leadership behavior identified in the University of Michigan studies are . A) absolute leadership and contingency leadership B) transformational leaders and authentic leaders C) employee-oriented leaders and production-oriented leaders D) initiating structure and consideration E) initiation and completion Explanation: C) Leadership studies at the University of Machine’s Survey Research Center located behavioral characteristics of leaders that appeared related to performance effectiveness: the employee-oriented leader and the reduction-oriented leader.

The employee-oriented leader emphasized interpersonal relationships by taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among them; the production- oriented leader emphasized the technical or task aspects of the job?concern focused on accomplishing the group’s tasks. Dif: 2 Page Ref: 153 Objective: University of Michigan Studies 17) The University of Michigan studies define a(n) leader as one who takes a personal interest in the needs of his/her subordinates. A) contingency B) task-oriented C) employee-oriented D) production-oriented E) structure initiating Explanation: C) According to the behavioral dimensions of leaders identified by the University of Machine’s Survey Research Center, the employee-oriented leader emphasized interpersonal relationships by taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among them.

Dif: 2 Page Ref: 153 Objective: Employee-Oriented Leaders 18) If a leader’s main concern is accomplishing his/her group’s tasks, the University of Michigan studies label this leader C) relationship-oriented D) low in initiating structure E) production-oriented . A) employee-oriented Explanation: E) According to the behavioral dimensions identified bathe University of Machine’s Survey Research Center, the production-oriented leader emphasized the technical or task aspects of the job, his main concern being accomplishing the group’s tasks. Dif 2 Page Ref: 153 Objective: Production-Oriented Leaders 19) The behavioral dimensions identified by the University of Machine’s Survey Research Center are closely related to those identified in the Ohio State Study. Employee-oriented leadership is similar to and production-oriented leadership is similar to .

A) initiating structure; consideration B) task-orientation; relationship-orientation C) transformational leadership; authentic leadership D) authentic leadership; transformational leadership E) consideration; initiating structure Explanation: E) The behavioral dimensions identified by the University of Machine’s Survey Research Center are closely related to the Ohio State dimensions. Employee-oriented leadership is similar to consideration, and production-oriented leadership is similar to initiating structure. In fact, most leadership researchers use the terms synonymously. Dif: 2 Page Ref: 153 20) Contingency theories focus on the that impact leadership SUccess..

A) leader’s personal characteristics and qualities B) leader’s abilities to inspire and transform followers C) situational variables D) values and ethics E) aspects of the leader’s behavior Explanation: C) Numerous studies have shown that predicting leadership success is more complex than isolating a few traits or behaviors, since leadership styles that are effective in very bad times or in very good times do not necessarily translate into long-term success. This idea led researchers to change their focus from trait and behavior theories to situational influences on leadership styles, or contingency theories. Dif: 1 Page Ref: 154 Objective: Contingency Models LO: 3 21) The first comprehensive contingency model for leadership was developed by . A) Hershey and Blanchard B) Blake and Mouton C) Fred Fiddler D) John Cotter E) Douglas Usurer Explanation: C) The first comprehensive contingency model for leadership was developed by Fred Fiddler. Fiddler believes that a key factor in leadership success is the individual’s basic leadership style.

According to the Fiddler contingency model, effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader’s style and the degree to which the situation gives the leader control. Dif: 1 Page Ref: 154 Objective: Fiddler Contingency Model 22) Which model represents the theory that effective group performance depends on the proper match between a leader’s style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader? A) leader-member exchange model B) Fiddler’s contingency model C) Hershey and Blanchard situational leadership model D) Broom and Youth’s leader-participation model E) House’s path-goal model of leadership Explanation: B) According to Fiddler’s Contingency Model, the key factor predicting leadership success is the individual’s basic leadership style.

Since Fiddler assumes an individual’s leadership style is fixed, effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader’s style and the degree to which the situation gives the leader control. Dif: 2 Page Ref: 154 23) In Fiddler’s model, if a respondent describes his or her least preferred co- worker in relatively positive terms, then the respondent is considered to be . A) relationship oriented B) production-oriented C) task-oriented D) high in initiating structure E) low in consideration Explanation: A) Fiddler’s least preferred coworker (ALP) questionnaire measures whether a person is task- or relationship-oriented by asking respondents to rate their least favorite coworker.

If respondents describe their least favorite coworker in favorable terms (a high ALP score), they are probably relationship-oriented. In contrast, respondents who describe their least-preferred coworker in unfavorable terms (a low ALP score) are viewed as primarily interested in productivity and as being task-oriented. Dif: 3 Page Ref: 154 Objective: Least Preferred Coworker 24) If a survey respondent sees his or her least preferred co-worker in unfavorable terms, Fiddler would categorize the respondent as consideration . A) high in C) low in initiating structure D) employee-oriented E) relationship oriented Explanation: B) Fiddler’s least preferred coworker (ALP) questionnaire measures their least favorite coworker.

Respondents who describe their least-preferred coworker in unfavorable terms (a low ALP score) are viewed as primarily interested in productivity and as being task-oriented. Conversely, respondents who describe their least-favorite coworker in favorable terms (a high ALP score) are considered to be relationship-oriented. Dif: 2 Page Ref: 154 5) Fran has just completed and scored the ALP questionnaire given to her during an evaluation exercise. She is surprised when she finds out that she described her least preferred co-worker in relatively positive terms because she recalls being particularly annoyed by this difficult co-worker several times in the past.

Based on your understanding of Fiddler’s model, you explain to Fran that her COP score makes sense within the model because . A) Fran tends to become very dominating when given ambiguous tasks B) Fran is usually much more focused on productivity than on developing relationships C) Fran tends n general to focus on building good relationships with the other employees D) Fran has a spotty work history and has tended to switch jobs every couple of years E) Fran is usually chosen for positions of high responsibility within your organization Answer: C Explanation: C) If you describe the person you are least able to work with in favorable terms (a high ALP score), Fiddler would label you relationship oriented.