However, there are limitations to Jobs leadership at Apple with factors such as shareholders, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility policies and critical management studies all factors which restrict his leadership to an extent. Due to what Steve Jobs has achieved in his career, and his leadership style, this has made him a hugely well liked man. An example of this popularity is, ” Steve Jobs is thought of very highly not just by those within his industry, but the wider business community. Even Bill Gates, seen as Jobs’ nemesis, has a great deal of respect for his rival. Www. Telegraph. Com ). This portrays how highly Jobs is regarded, and the degree of appreciation which he has exerted from others. Steve Jobs is seen as an idol and role model in the eyes of many people. Steve Jobs is an ethical leader. He does a lot of good out with the business scene. Jobs got highly involved in trying to get a living organ donor registry for California, with Jobs joining the governor of California, Arnold Schwarzenegger in introducing the legislation. The perception among people is that Steve Jobs played a prominent role in getting the legislation passed.
An example of this recognition is, ” the idea of a registry for living kidney donors only gained enough political support from Lawsuit’s senate colleagues and the governor to make it into the formal bill this past March thanks to one man : Apple CEO Steve Jobs. ” ( www. Businessperson. Com ). This shows that Jobs is an ethical leader, as it is not only within Apple he strives for improvement, but outside Apple, he strives to improve issues which he feels should be bettered and which are beneficial to communities.
The type of culture which Steve Jobs has created at Apple is Organizational. According to Edgar Scheme, who is a highly respected man having made a mark in organizational development, organizational culture is about being creative and developing inventive products, for example, ” Inspired by Chine’s thinking and that of other management gurus’, managers wholeheartedly embraced the idea of organizational culture during the sass’s to the point where you were nobody unless you were working on creating a dynamic and innovative corporate culture. ( Jackson and Parry, 2008; p. 65 ). This is exactly the style of leadership which Jobs has put into place at Apple, as he constantly strives to bring out premium reduces of huge quality. He endeavourers to develop unique products which have never been seen before, to gain a competitive advantage. The cultural dimension of leadership at Apple is Collectivism. Jobs has created a structure within the company whereby all members of a team work hard of each other, and also where each team leader manages his or her team effectively.
The Collectivism dimension is described as, ” In collectivist societies leaders will be expected to keep the good of the in – group uppermost in their minds. ” (Jackson and Parry, 2008; p. 70 ). This is the dimension of leadership in place at Apple as Steve Jobs has the ability to praise employees in areas in which they have done a good job, and tries to keep a positive mentality across the team. Steve Jobs possesses positive leadership attributes, for example, he is intelligent, he has a dynamic personality and he is a motivational leader.
An example of his impressive attributes is, ” Mr. Jobs had built a reputation as a demanding leader who could take technologies and make them popular with the general public. ” ( www. BBC. Co. UK ). Steve Jobs has highly impressive leadership attributes, and he is a huge reason as to why Apple has been such a successful company. Leadership is ” critical in codifying and maintaining an organizations’ purpose, values, and vision. ” ( PM World Today Journal ).
Having good leadership methods in place at an organization is vital in bringing success to a company. Steve Jobs is highly stimulated and has a strong idea of what he wants for Apple to achieve in upcoming periods. He is a transformational leader, and this, ” represents the most popular current view of leadership. This leader is characterized by a capacity to create a highly motivating and absorbing vision of the future, and has the capability to energies others to pursue the vision. ” ( Claremont McKenna College Journal ).
Jobs has put in a huge effort to create a strong framework of control and direction, for example, ” Since returning to Apple, Steve has put as much energy into creating a strong management structure as he has into the products. “(I’M. Www. Ft. Com This is highly effective leadership, trying to improve the design of the organization in order to achieve more efficiency. Part of looking at leadership from a critical perspective includes looking at leadership discourse. Having looked at the different types of leadership discourse, the most appropriate choice for Steve Jobs as a controller is Iron Cage.
Iron Cage leadership is about getting the most production possible through guidance. An example of this is, ” Comfortable iron cage maximizes production through increased motivation and promoting personal growth and team work. ” ( Hubert, 2011, p. 9 ). This is exactly the type of leadership which Steve Jobs has developed at Apple. He is a highly motivational leader, and he tries to install this characteristic into his workers. Steve Jobs also places much emphasis on good team working abilities, as this is vital in obtaining success.
An example of the importance of team work within an organization is, ” The increased pressure n professionals to perform their tasks at faster speeds, and with more quality creates the need for team work. ” ( Psychology and Human Development Journal The vitality of effective team work is portrayed by this example, and one of Steve Jobs major objectives is to maintain a workforce which strives to co- operate and work for each other. It could be suggested that at Apple, Steve Jobs follows the team leadership model.
This model seems appropriate to Jobs’ leadership style, as it is described as, ” Leaders can use the model to help them make decisions about the current Tate of their team and the specific actions they need to take, if any, to improve the team’s functioning. ” ( Morehouse, 2010, p. 256 ). This is the model which Steve Jobs relates to. He is constantly trying to enhance any areas of the team which could be amended, to try and maximize efficiency within his teams, as this is going to improve the chances of his teams developing products of their maximum capabilities.
Steve Jobs leadership styles make him a controller. He is not a therapist as he does not fall short in terms of dynamism, he does not lack a planned target and his leadership has built a solid culture at Apple. The implications of a controller, which relate to Steve Jobs’ qualities are that he focuses on, ” output and task, results driven, improves efficiency and decisive leadership in crisis. ” ( Hubert, 2011 , p. 12 ). This epitomizes Steve Jobs’ qualities perfectly. He always has results in mind when thinking up possible new ideas, he thrives on his products being successful as well.
Jobs also strives to constantly improve proficiency levels within his teams, and when there are problematic situations, he steps in and uses his experience to try and avoid problems that may arise, if his leadership skills were to outstanding. Yet Steve Jobs, despite coming across as the ideal leader can lose his temper on the occasion, for example, ” Jobs’ personal abuses are also legend : He periodically reduces subordinates to tears, and fires employees in angry tantrums. ” ( money. CNN. Mom This shows a side to Steve Jobs which many people will not know, that he can get major furious and make rash decisions concerning his dealings with some employees. This anger on occasion however, is to be expected of a man in such an important position within the business world. Shareholders can limit the leadership of Steve Jobs at Apple. Apple has been involved in some notable controversies, which has created bad press for the company, and this will not please a number of shareholders.
An example of one of these situations is about Apple’s environmental practices, for example, ” Apple has been criticized by some environmental organizations for now being a leader in removing chemicals from its new products and for not aggressively or properly recycling its old products. ” ( move. Apple. Com ). This kind of press is unlikely to impress shareholders, and situations like this may cause shareholders to withdraw their shares from Apple. This would put Apple in a poorer financial state than they are currently in, and shows that it is important for Steve Jobs to keep shareholders satisfied or else there could be consequences.
Another example of shareholders limiting leadership at Apple is that there is an annual meeting for shareholders at Apple, where propositions are discussed, and the shareholders get to vote on certain issues, for example, ” shareholders passed a resolution in favor of giving them more of a say in determining compensation for senior executives. ” ( www. Businesslike. Com This limits leadership if hardliners are able to be involved in important matters such as regulating pensions. Corporate Social Responsibility policies to an extent limit Steve Jobs leadership at Apple.
There are certain ethics which are in place to ensure that workers are not taken advantage of among many other regulations. An example of one of these CARS policies which protects workers is, ” Apple is committed to ensuring the working conditions in Apple’s chain supply are safe, that workers are treated with respect and dignity. ” ( SOME CARS Company Profile Journal ). This limits leadership as by Apple’s workers having the right to be treated in a proper manner with recognition, this means that leaders cannot just do as they please and take advantage of the workers.
There are certain regulations which prohibit this ever taking place. As part of Critical Management Studies, the Institutional theory can be looked at. Within this theory, one aspect which is a part of the theory is the regulative elements section. Steve Jobs and Apple must confide by certain set regulations. Regulative elements are described as, ” the formal “rules of the game” and their enforcement including legal, political & economic arrangements. [North, 1990]. Stanford University Journal There are many legal, political and economic rules which Apple must abide by.
This limits leadership as Steve Jobs has to examine legal factors before he can try to bring out a new product for example. Therefore, there will be situations whereby an idea which he wants to pursue will not be able to be furthered as it is against the law. This could be for infringing upon another company’s products for example. Overall, this is a major factor which limits leadership for Steve Jobs. Corporate governance limits Steve Jobs leadership at Apple. There are certain deadlines which are in place which restricts Jobs domination.
One of these rules of corporate governance is that the Board of Directors have been given a large amount of authority, for example, ” The board oversees the Chief Executive Officer and other senior management in the competent and ethical operation of the Corporation on a day-to-day basis and assumes that the long-term interests of the shareholders are being served. ” ( pHs. Corporate-IR. Net This suggests that due to corporate governance, the board of directors at Apple are highly involved in decisions taking which takes place.
By the Board of Directors having the power to approve or neglect appointing such people for the company, this limits the leadership for Steve Jobs, as the final decision being made is not his, it comes down to the overall decision of the Board. Apple is an ethical company. There are a huge number of regulations which have been drawn up to ensure that Apple can be as ethical a business as possible. An example of one of these ethics is that Apple’s suppliers ” engage the community to foster social and economic development and to contribute to the sustainability of the communities in which they operate. Image. Apple. Com ). This is an example that there are rules by which the Apple’s suppliers must comply by. This means that Steve Jobs cannot select any suppliers, but he must select suppliers of ethical practice. This rule about helping the community where the operations take place is only one regulation, there are many more which have been put in place. Other examples of ethical regulations include protection of intellectual property, no improper advantage and disclosure of information.
By having these regulations in place, this means that there are rules which Steve Jobs’ suppliers just abide by, thus limiting Jobs leadership to an extent. It could be suggested that although Steve Jobs is an ethical leader, more emphasis could be placed on the Corporate Social Responsibility policies in place, to help the ethos of Apple and to limit leadership. One of these policies which Apple could try and improve is how their practices affect the environment, as Apple has been involved in notable environmental scandals before.
It seems however, that they are working hard at tackling this issue, for example, ” Apple operates in a manner that conserves the environment and protects he safety and health of our employees. Use good judgment and always put the environment, health, and safety first. ” ( pHs. Corporate-IR. Net ). This is a statement which shows the importance of good environmental practice at Apple. Another example of a Corporate Social Responsibility policy which Steve Jobs could focus harder on is by trying to ensure that scandals, such as the issue involving a former Apple manager, Paul Divine do not occur.
Divine was involved in a 1 million dollar bribery. This type of scenario places much pressure on Apple due to the bad press which the company will receive as a result of his genre of wrong doing. By rectifying these problems mentioned, this may influence people to believe that Apple is an ethical company, and by placing more importance on Corporate Social Responsibility policies, this is an effective method of limiting leadership, as by abiding more thoroughly to these policies, it means that Steve Jobs is unable to just do as he pleases, and dodge policies, thus limiting his leadership.
Having looked through the different Reflexive modes, one mode which would limit leadership, and could again make Apple a more ethical company is by using Meta-reflexives. This style of leadership is about what the leader wants to become and how the leader wants to be seen as, rather than what the leader wants to do. Almost every leader in every business wants to come across to the public as an honest person, with exceptional leadership skills and qualities. Therefore, if this reflexive mode was in place at Apple, Steve Jobs would make decisions based on how he is developing into as a leader.
This means that there would be more chance of Jobs wanting to promote as ethical a company as he possibly could. There is also a good chance that he would go through all he factors which are required to be a moral leader, with factors such as the proper treatment of his workers being highly important as well as not causing environmental problems when his Apple products are being manufactured. It is also likely that a major emphasis would be placed on teamwork, with more employees possibly having a better chance to voice their opinions about how improvement COUld take place.