Life insurance and retirement planning which have quite a lot to do with insurance industry are questions of interest. The insurance industry focuses on close contact among clients, sales people and managers. That is a human-oriented industry, for which the experienced leaders inspire the sales people through continuous training and encouragement and lead them by vision. Therefore, leader’s leadership type is the critical factor for the success of the organization.
This research explores the relationships among leader’s leadership style, subordinates personality characteristic, and job stress and turnover intention. We also identify the role of the variable of personality characteristic and job stress respectively. We use convenient sampling method to collect data. In pretest, 50 copies of questionnaires are sent to employees of M insurance company, for which 46 valid ones are returned, And then, a total of 220 copies of questionnaires are sent out, of which 176 returned questionnaires are valid. The effective response rate is at 80%.
We adopt SPAS to do data analysis and draw conclusions as follows: (1) Leadership style has significant influence on job stress; (2) Job stress has positive relationship with turnover intention; (3) Leadership style has negative influence of turnover intention; (4) Personality characteristic has no moderating effect on the relationship between leadership style and job stress; (5) Personality characteristic brings no moderating effect on the relationship between job stress and turnover intention; (6) Job stress has mediation effect on the relationship between leadership style and turnover intention.
Keeper’s: Leadership Style, Job Stress, Personality Characteristic, Turnover Intention. INTRODUCTION retirement planning that have quite a lot to do with insurance are questions of interest. The insurance industry focuses on close contact and interaction among and encouragement and lead them to work hard to achieve goals by vision. The leader’s leadership type plays an important role in achievement performance t of the organization. The leaders ability to adapt to internal and external environment changes and lead a group of cordial subordinates to work together is the key to success.
Thus, this research explores the relationships among the leader’s leadership style and the subordinates personality characteristic, job stress and turnover intention. This research also studies the role of the variable of personality characteristic and job stress respectively and gives advices to managers to lower the turnover rate in the life insurance industry. The specific research objectives are listed as follows: (1). To explore the influence of leadership style on the subordinates job stress; (2). To explore the influence of job stress on turnover intention; (3). o explore the influence of different leadership style on the turnover intention; (4). To explore the moderating role of personality characteristic on leadership style and job stress respectively; (5). To explore the mediating effect of personality characteristic and job stress respectively. LITERATURE REVIEW Leadership Style The practice and academic circles agree that leadership is really an important object in the field of organizational behavior. Leadership is one with the most dynamic effects during individual and organizational interaction.
In other words, whether a management is able to execute “collaborated effort” depends on leadership capability. The excellent leader not only inspires subordinates potential to enhance efficiency and also meets their requirements in the process of achieving organizational goals. Stodgily(1 957) defined leadership as the individual behavior to guide a group to achieve the common target. In latter days, Richards & Engle (1986) defined leadership as about establishment f vision, value and creation of environment so that the objective can be accomplished.
Definitions on leadership defined by selected authors were summarized into table 1. Table 1 Definition of Leadership I Year I Author 1 11957 Hemophilia & Cons I Definition of Leadership I Leadership is the individual behavior to guide a group to achieve the common I I I target. Stodgily or organization to achieve the I I I Leadership is an influential activity to others I target set by the leader. 1 11969 I Bowers Leadership is an activity process of interpersonal relationship; other’s behavior I is influenced through this process to achieve the set target. 11977 I Davis I Leadership means persuasion on others to enthusiastically chase for certain & Relief 1 11982 I Morphed, Johns I Leadership means, in the social system, the individual action, behavior, faith and I I others under volunteer cooperation. Target are influenced by the 11986 I Richards & Engle I Leadership is about establishment of vision, value and creation of environment 1 11990 Segregation I that the objective can be accomplished. I Leadership means the leader satisfies the staffs demand by use of consultation, I I ND compromise so that the staff trades his work for rewards.
I negotiation Jacobs & Jacques Leadership helps others to strive and to enhance aspiration to achieve the target. I 1993 I Robbins is the ability to influence the group to achieve the target. I Leadership 1 11994 Kill I Leadership is the process of influence on the subordinate, in which the Subordinate is inspired to achieve the target, the group is maintained in I cooperation, and the established mission is accomplished, and the support from I I lectern group is obtained. 1 12001 Morehouse and subordinate.
I Leadership is exchanged relationship between leader 12003 I Fry use of leading strategy to offer inspiring motive and to enhance I I the staffs potential for growth and development. After reviewing studies on leadership theory conducted in the past, it is generally divided into four periods: (1). Traits theory in asses— It focuses on the innate leadership qualities and competence. These innate qualities are not found in others. The so-called quality can be divided into physiological and mental aspects.
The physiological aspect includes: height, weight, looks, and vigor while the mental aspect includes intelligence, confidence, and aggressiveness etc. Stodgily (1948) proposed twelve leadership related studies and was considered as representative of this period. (2). Behavioral theory from late asses to late asses— It believes that a leader will be able to achieve ideal organizational efficiency if he demonstrates effective leadership behaviors. These leadership behaviors may be trained or learned through experience. Actual behavior or leadership styles are emphasized.
Representative research is conducted in Ohio State University. Ohio State University proposed “consideration” and “initiating structure” of leadership behaviors. Consideration is a behavior that focuses on strengthening relationship with subordinates based on their needs and perceptions, while “initiating structure” is a behavior that focuses on subordinate performance in goal accomplishment. (3). Contingency theory in late 1 sass— This theory states that there is no set of optimum leadership model in this world and that it depends on the situation encountered.
Situational leadership theory began its development subsequently. It states that leaders need to adopt the most optimum leadership style based on different organizational situations. Among which, Fiddler’s contingency theory (1967) is most well-known. (4). Contemporary leadership theory since asses—The viewpoint of contemporary leadership theory states that leadership is a type of interactive process with the environment. Bass & Viola (1990) proposed transactional leadership and transformation leadership:(l )transactional leadership— encouraging subordinates through incentive establishment.
In other words, incentive elicits work performance. Transactional leadership is the basis for most leadership theories. It focuses on the exchange relationship between the deader and the subordinate (Fry, 2003; Morehouse, 2001 (2) transformation leadership—to enhance staffs trust and respect for leader by altering intrinsic work value and faith of staff at the same time in order to elicit work capabilities. Because “charisma” is viewed as an essential element, transformation leader provides incentives for subordinates, enhance subordinate potential and development. Fry, 2003); and (3) Charismatic leadership theory refers to the follower’s perception toward certain behaviors of the leader as being heroic or extraordinary. Job Stress Job stress means improper occupational stress or burden that badly affects he psychological and physical condition of the worker himself (Zeroes, 1974). Penn (1998) states that psychological stress is neither stimulus nor reaction but a handling method or relationship; it is the interaction between the individual and the environment, which gains or consumes resources of human behavior and endangers the individual health.
When the individual feels job stress, it usually comes along with following symptoms:(l) psychological aspects passive, disconsolate, anxious and anger; (2) physical aspect— imbalance inception, headache, sleepless and disturbed; (3) behavioral aspect-? change of living behavior, decrease of job involvement, absence from work, and turnover. The definitions of various authors were summarized in table 2.
Table 2 Definition of Job Stress 1 11956 Solely I Definition of Job Stress Sisters means uncertain reaction of the body to demand, and also basic demand from I I internal or external environment, or reaction result against threat of balance I I Condition. 1 11971 I French Sisters is the consequence that an individual’s ability or skills fail to I coordinate with the job or the job environment cannot satisfy the individual [demand. 1 11974 Zeroes I Stress is improper occupational pressure or ruder which badly affects the and physical condition of the worker himself. Psychological 1 11978 Behr & Newman Sisters is the change that drives the worker from normal psychological and physically I I condition. 1 11980 Evangelic & Matheson I Stress is some adaptive reaction, a consequence of special psychological or I physical demand from the event, and such reaction takes personal character as I I intermediary. 1984 I Fleming et al. I Stress is a conceptualized process and contains one’s recognition and reaction to I I danger or threat. 1 11985 I Jam working environment.
I Stress is one’s reaction against threat in the 11998 1 Penn I The psychology claims that job stress is neither stimulus nor reaction but some I I I handling method or relationship. Personality Characteristics Personality characteristic means one’s psychological and physical phenomenon. At different time and condition, it adapts to different environment by unique behavioral mode and thinking method. Friedman & Roseanne (1959) categorize personality characteristics into type A and B. Type A shows exuberant ambition and aggression. Type B has more patience and pays less attention to competition and sense of achievement.
Definitions of personality characteristic were summarized as shown into table 3. Table 3 Definitions of Personality Characteristic I Definition of Personality Characteristic 1 11959 Guilford I Personality characteristic is a combination of individual trait and property, which generates I and special characteristic different from the others. La lasting 1 11961 Laptop I Personality means dynamic behavior from psychological and physical aspect to adapt to the I environment. 1 11970 I Perrine I Personality represents structure and dynamics from reaction to the environment. 11972 1 Scott & Mitchell I Personality s formed from accumulation of psychological growth and development. 11998 I Personality is one’s reaction to the others and consequence of interaction with others. I | 1985 I Lee I Personality characteristic means psychological attributes of affection and thought among I 1 11997 I Lu people; it’s also a specific and lasting behavioral pattern. I The formation of personality is affected by gene, culture, environment, and social factor. I Turnover Intention Turnover intention means the subjective perception of the organizational member to quite the current job for other opportunity (Fan, 1978).
Table 4 wowed definitions of turnover intention defined by various authors. Table 4 Definition of Turnover Intention 1 11973 1 11975 Definition of Turnover Intention Porter & Steers I Retreating behavior from job dissatisfaction. Karat Fishbone & Zen I The best anticipation for turnover I The best measurement to presume the workers turnover behavior leaving the current organization or post I Mobile Ailed of I Bluebird I It is differ from actual turnover behavior which is influenced by more external I I element . 1993 I Teeth & Meyer I Perception of a series of retreating cognitions. Empirical Studies
The verification researches made by the domestic and foreign scholars on leadership, job stress, personality characteristic and turnover intention are described as )in research of leader behavior and job stress, Fleischman (1964) found that consideration in the leader behavior has negative connection with the job stress, while the initiating structure is positively connected with job stress; (2) in research of leader behavior and turnover intention, Fleischman & Harris (1962) in the study of the influence of various leadership types on turnover rate and complaint rate found that consideration for the subordinates s negatively connected with the turnover, while the initiating structure is positively connected with turnover; (3) in research of job stress and turnover intention, Paranormal & Layout (1984) in the research on 21 7 employees at the food manufacturing company indicated that job stress had positive connection with turnover in research of personality characteristics and job stress, Change (1998) chose employees of Taiwan Sugar Company as research subject and indicated that those with type A personality characteristic had higher perception of job stress and she more physical and psychological discomfort sections;(5) in research of personality characteristics and turnover intention, Change (2003) released 260 questionnaires to 1 1 schools and revealed that personality characteristics had no significant impact on turnover intention. The relevant empirical researches were listed in table 5. Table 5 Empirical Research I Issue I Year I Sample I Empirical Result | 1986 | 222 operators of China Steel I Len leadership method, consideration has significantly I I Company. Negative connection with job stress, but the initiating I I Structure has apparently positive connection with job Sisters.
For overall , leadership is negatively connected I I with job stress. I Inning 11984 1207 engineers of a R&D institute Consideration leadership has negative connection with I I turnover. I Eke | 1989 1217 employees of 105 companies Len leader behavior, consideration has negative connection I I intention and the initiating structure is I I negatively connected with turnover intention. I with turnover I I Paranormal& I 1984 121 7 employees of food connection with I I Layout turnover intention. I Job stress has significantly positive manufacturing company I Taken | 1994 | Employees of 12 five-star hotels Job stress is positively connected with turnover intention. N Taipei Taken | 2001 1180 high-tech industry and 255 | People with A-type personality characteristics perceive job I alteration industry Sisters more serious while, those who with a-type perceive I I Lethe least. I I Change 11998 III inland employees of Taiwan I People with more A-type personality characteristics I Sugar Company stress and also higher I perceive higher extent of job I improper reaction physically and psychologically. I Awing 11990 1 Employees from 95 gas stations at People with A-type personality characteristics have | 23 Cities stress than those of people with I I I Chichi 1994 | 2,400 employees of Taiwan type personality characteristics perceive I significantly higher job I B-type. I People with A- I Semiconductor Manufacturing Co.
I more anxiety, disconsolation, low self-respect than those I people with B-type, yet the overall job stress does not I I I reach significant I Aching 12003 1260 contractual personnel at 11 Tithe research result finds that personality characteristics I I Schools I Fang I has no evident influence on turnover intention. 1 999 | 194 staffs of Attain Revenue I The research result indicates no significant variance I I between male and female on job stress. I Service Office I I Fang | 1999 | 1 94 staffs of Attain Revenue I Age is positively connected with job stress. Change | 1999 200 female operators of wafer I Age has significantly positive connection with turnover I I Industrial I intention. I Aching Manufacturer in Hissing I Zone | 1994 333 b drivers in Single people feel higher job stress than the married ones.
I I Chem. Taipei | 1997 Employees of enterprises in mid of I Married people perceive more disconsolate job stress than ones. I Taiwan I single | 1999 1200 female operators of wafer I Turnover intention of single people is higher than that of I I I manufacturer in Hissing Industrial I married ones. Zone 1999 | 194 staffs of Attain Revenue I The research found turnover intention difference between I I male is not evident. Service Office I female and I [Chuan | 2000 | Research of job stress and job Workers seniority has positive connection with job stress. I I satisfaction on 1 74 high-tech I I employees I Change | 1994 333 b us drivers in Taipei negative connection with job stress.
I RESEARCH METHOD Research Framework Rocker’s seniority has Insurance is human-oriented business. The service it offers is intangible and he services of competitors are highly similar, for which the salespeople must face keen competition and challenge from competitors. The turnover rate of life insurance salesmen keeps high because of such job compensation without base pay and suffering from heavy stress that is hard to be accepted by the people. The experienced leader is well aware of this fact and keeps training, assisting and inspiring the sales personnel. Therefore, the leader’s leadership style is very important for the performance achievement of organization.
Therefore, we have a great interest in exploring the relationships among leadership style, resonantly characteristic, job stress and turnover intention. This research also tries to identify the role of variable for personality characteristic and job stress respectively. Framework of this research is shown as Figurer . [pick]Fig 1 Research framework Research Hypotheses If the organization intends to keep outperforming in the violently competitive environment, leadership is the most influential factor. The objective of this research is to explore the relationships among leadership style and salespeople job stress and turnover intention and the role of personality characteristic and job stress respectively.
We learn from the above literatures that the leader’s leadership style has significant influence on the staffs job stress and turnover intention. Thus, this research develops following hypothesis based on the research framework: Different leadership style has different impact on the subordinates work willingness. The leaders ability to adapt to internal and external environmental change and lead a group of cordial subordinates fighting together is one of the keys to success. Hush (1986) conducts research on 222 operators of China Steel Company in Shunning on the relationship among leaders personality harmonistic, the leader behavior, the staffs job stress and job satisfaction.
The research indicated that consideration leadership had significantly negative connection with job stress, but the initiating structure positively connected with job stress, the leadership style and job stress are negatively connected. Hence, we develop hypotheses as below: HI Leadership style has significant influence on job stress HI a Transformational leadership has negative influence on job stress HI b Transactional leadership has positive influence on job stress Job stress is usually generated along with change of productivity such as passive bob involvement, indifference to colleagues, envy and suspicion, efficiency drop, job absence, turnover, etc.
Paranormal & Layout (1984) studied 217 employees of food manufacturing company and found that job stress had positive connection with turnover intention. Therefore, we propose the hypothesis as follows. H2O Job stress has positive influence on turnover intention. Fleischman & Harris (1962) conducted research on relationships among leadership style, turnover rate and complaint rate. The research result reveals that consideration leadership style (transformational) has apparently negative injection with turnover, while initiating structure (transactional) is positively connected with turnover. Therefore, we develop hypotheses as below: HA Leadership style has significant influence on turnover intention. Ha Transformational leadership has negative influence on turnover intention.
Hob Transactional leadership has positive influence on turnover intention. Wang (1990) made his research on the subject of connection among employee with A-type personality characteristic, leader’s leadership style, and employee’s job stress” and found that people with A-type personality characteristic perceive ore job stress than those with B-type, while ones with B-type feel apparently more job stress at low self-respect post than those of A-type. Thus, hypotheses are developed as follows. HA Personality characteristic has moderating effect on the relationship between leadership style and job stress. HA Personality characteristic has moderating effect on the relationship between job stress and turnover intention.