ch.9

Term Definition
political party An association of voters with broad, common interests who want to influence or control decision making in government by electing the party's candidates to public office.
two party system A system of government in which two parties compete for power.
third party a party that challenges the two major parties
platform a series of statements expressing the party's principles, beliefs, and positions on election issues
plank each individual part of a political party's platform; a party's stance on a political issue
national committee representatives from the 50 state party organizations who run a political party
caucus a meeting of political party members to conduct party business
precinct a geographic area that contains a specific number of voters
ward several adjoining precincts making up a larger election unit
political machine a strong party organization that can control political appointments and deliver votes
direct primary an election in which voters choose candidates to represent each party in a general election
closed primary an election in which only the declared members of a party are allowed to vote for that party's nominees
open primary an election in which voters need not declare their party preference to vote for the party's nominees
plurality the most votes among all those running for a political office
majority a number that is more than 50 percent of the total
petition a process by which candidates who are not affiliated with the two major parties can get on the ballot for the general election in most states

Cardiovascular Syste Advanced Patho

Question Answer
The circulatory system deoxygenated blood to the heart via veins >IVC to right side/atrium to the rt ventricle> pushes blood to pulmonary artery> lungs> saturated w/O2 red to the heart via 4n P. veins on the left side/atrium> l. ventricle pushes to aorta> arteries> organs
We care about which chamber the most? the ventricles
If there’s a problem in the left ventricles, what would be affected? backup> effects the lungs
Back up means what? hydrostatic pressure (ie; can push water into the alveoli instead of air)
Manifestations of left sided heart failure is? 1) dyspnea> manifestations exaggerated with exertion> worst when you lie flat, 2) orthopnea, 3) paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, 4) cough, 5) PE> all from pulmonary congestion
Manifestations of right sided heart failure systemic venous congestion> venous neck distention, liver, splenomegaly, portal htn, lower limb edema, ascites
If you have both left and right sided issues= CHF
CHF is dx how? only by the s/s? pulmonary (1) dyspnea> 2) orthopnea, 3) paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, 4) cough, 5) PE)> or venous systemic congestion (venous neck distention, liver, splenomegaly, portal htn, lower limb edema, ascites)
Heart is graded based on? cardiac output
Heart failure is low CO
Cardiac output (CO) is ? CO= SV (70) X HR (70) = 4900 or 5L> the volume of blood pumped by each ventricle per minute (CO= left ventricle)
Heart failure is when the CO is < than ______L? 4
3 determinants of stroke volume (SV)>
Stroke volume (SV) is? Volume of blood pumped per beat (70)
Preload whatever volume/ pressure amt ventricle filled before contraction> the more preload, the more the CO
Afterload vascular resistance felt by left ventricle d/t high arteriole pressure = high afterload
Systole and diastole contraction/ejects and relaxation/fills
Heart failure with systolic dysfunction when the heart fails to contract
Heart failure with diastolic dysfunction when the heart fails to do its diastolic fx
The higher the preload, the ______ the stroke volume and the ______ CO better, the higher
The higher the afterload, the_______ the SV, the _________ CO lower, the lower
Cardiac contractility increase it by whipping the heart with the SNS ^ contractility and HR
The more you fill the heart, the more it contracts >when stretched, it performs better, why? Heart muscles are filled with 2 fibers myosin and actin> overlap and form cross-bridges when they contract> if too much overlap when the heart is empty, there’ll be minimal cross-bridges, but as it fills it’s optimal.
EDV end diastolic volume/ preload ventricle fills during diastole (135) = maximum amt
Frank starling curve/ preload as more blood is returned to the heart and the EDV ^, the heart automatically pumps out a correspondingly ^ SV.
What will increase CO? Higher preload, lower afterload, higher contractility, higher heart rate
Stroke volume (SV) amount of blood ejected per beat
End diastolic volume (EDV) amount of blood that accumulates in the ventricles before contraction
Do your ventricles empty out completely? NO, out of 135, maybe about 70, what remains in the heart is 65. The 65 is the ESV- end systolic volume
Stroke volume SV= EDV-ESV? the whole (diastole filling) minus what’s left in the ventricle after contraction= what’s ejected
End systolic volume 65ml
Ejection fraction 50-60% Refers to the percentage of blood that’s pumped out of a filled ventricle with each heartbeat. EF = SV / EDV % [70/135 = 52%]
Ejection fraction is a measurement of what? EF is a volume measurement, that reflects ventricular systolic function (low EF = systolic dysfx
Does low EF mean HF? Low EF = heart failure (systolic dysfunction)
Diastolic dysfunction effect EF? NO, it’s normal
Normal EF does NOT exclude heart failure because heart failure can occur if you have systolic dsfx or diastolic
Compensatory Song fill me more (no blood), feed me more (SNS), and I’m going to give you more
Fill me more kidneys> renin angiotensin system fill the heart with more blood so that the organs are supplied
Feed me more SNS causes the heart to contract for better cardiac output
Who is sad with the compensatory system? the heart because it’s sick and compensation makes it worse
Heart failure is the end result of 2 important conditions HTN and ischemic heart disease
Heart failure is not a disease it’s a condition which complicates chronic diseases
When you fill the LV with 135ml (EDV)/preload, and eject 70 (SV) = normal heart, CO 70sv x 70 hr=4900 (5L)
When you have an A+ heart, with EDV 135, and SV 90= CO= 90 (SV) x 70 (HR) = 6300
Failing heart, with EDV 135ml, and sv 40= CO= 40sv x hr70= 3600= heart failure
Compensatory mechanisms try to increase CO by increasing the preload, but this occurs at the expense of increased filling pressures congestion-caused by angiotensin II and aldosterone
Compensatory mechanisms try to increase CO by ^ SNS chronic SNS is bad- this occurs at the expense of increased cardiac work load- worsening of cardiac condition& remodeling
Compensatory kidney/RAAS system ^preload, good for the body, bad for the heart> congestion, ^work, remodeling d/t angiotensin and aldosterone
Compensatory SNS ^contractility, ^HR, ^afterload, good for the body (^co/BP), bad for heart> remodeling, ^workload
Endothelin release by vascular endothelium another mechanism to help increase BP by the blood vessels
The ONLY compensatory mechanism with a purely beneficial effect from a CARDIAC perspective diuresis through BNP/ANP= vcongestion/workload¬> Natriuretic Peptides like Lasix> lose Na+ and water
The ONLY lab test with diagnostic and prognostic values in CHF BNP- when negative, it excludes–> in proportion with severity- normal level is 100
Compensatory mechanisms of HF Frank-Starling Mechanism, SNS, Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, Natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP), Endothelins, Myocardial hypertrophy and remodeling
SNS sense BP with baroreceptors in neck arteries
HF starts with a cardiac insult and then the SNS rx baroreceptor detectors>SNS >^ ? cardiac rate/contractility/CO>? ^vasoconstriction>
HF starts with a cardiac insult and then the kidneys rx “OMG we’re bleeding to death”> renin> angiotensin I> converted to angiotensin II by ACE> vasoconstricts, ^aldosterone (Na+/water), ^ADH/vasopressin
2 major risk factors of heart disease ischemic heart disease and htn
How to dx HF? by hx
2 categories of heart failure systolic and diastolic
Systolic heart failure with systolic dysfunction> EF goes v
Diastolic heart failure with diastolic dysfunction> EF is normal/preserved
How do you categorize HF > echocardiogram
Low ejection fraction HF is called systolic> HFRF heart failure reduced fraction when EF <40%- both have low CO
Preserved ejection fraction name HFPF heart failure preserved fraction> diastolic- normal- EF > 50%-both have low CO
Need to know difference between HFRF and HFPF because tx is different
An ischemic heart is a dilated heart> systolic
HTN heart dz causes diastolic, hypertrophied heart
Normal myocyte stressed out increases in size/hypertrophy? in length and diameter proportionately? symmetric hypertrophy
Ischemic Heart disease myocyte increases in length more than width> dilated ventricle> Eccentric hypertrophy> lowered EF
Hypertensive Heart disease> myocyte increases in width more than length> concentric hypertrophy> hypertrophied/thick/stiff> preserved ejection fraction
Ischemic heart disease number 1 killer every year, except 1918 >flu
What supplies the heart with O2? Coronary arteries, and less blood = ischemia
Flow of blood in arteries the most important determinant is the diameter
Smaller diameter will equal? resistance
If ? of the coronary artery is obstructed, what will the flow and resistance be? resistance is 2x2x2x2=16 (inverse to 4th power of radius) and the flow is ? x ? x ? x ? x ? = 1/16 directly proportional to 4th power
If you have 2/3 obstruction of an artery, what is the flow and resistance? Flow is 1/3 x 1/3 x 1/3 x 1/3= 1/81 and resistance = 81
Cardiac surgeons will not do surgery unless obstruction is > ___%? 70
When the diameter goes down, the resistance goes ________ and the flow goes _______- up, down
When the diameter goes up, the resistance goes ______and the flow goes __________ down, up
In ischemic heart disease it’s all about the coronaries becoming narrowed
Arterial side higher pressure, lower volume (? 1/6 of blood volume)
Venous side lower pressure, higher volume (? 2/3 of blood volume)
Endocardium is the inner lining of the heart, which the coronary artery feeds, but receives the least amount of blood because it’s the furthest away> 1st part that dies with obstruction
Sub endocardial infarction 1st part of the heart that dies w/obstruction, does not result in ST elevation, does not show as ST elevation- nonSTEMI, troponin goes ^, obstruction furthest from coronary
When obstruction is local, what happens to the heart? a transmural infarction= STEMI, ST elevation- the whole thickness of ms dies.
Left main coronary artery supplies the left ventricle> circumflex > left anterior descending> septum
Right main coronary artery supplies the right ventricle
Why is important to know the arteries? EKG will show where the blockage and death of cells is occurring> then angiography
Mortality in females in post-menopausal females is ____ higher than males
The worst risk factor for ischemic heart disease is__________and the most common is _______? diabetes, HTN
Peripheral arterial dz (PAD) hurts when walking, and heart should be checked out also
Family hx the death has to be premature- person has to be YOUNG- for males <55yo and females <65yo
The pathogenesis of CAD is atherosclerosis- the formation of fibro-fatty lesions in the intimal lining of large and medium-sized arteries
Atherosclerosis endothelial cell injury: LDL, smoking, hypertension
LDL becomes oxidized, traumatic to lining? damage> injury/inflammation> macrophages get stuck there> formation of foam cells> unstable and stable plaque
Stable plaques Have thick fibrous caps, partially block arteries, Do not tend to form clots or emboli, Implicated in chronic stable angina
Unstable plaque Have thin fibrous caps, acute coronary syndromes, can rupture, thrombus can form, may completely block the artery, may break free= embolus, unstable angina and myocardial infarction
Stable angina chest pain on exertion> never to the ER
Unstable angina can to you to ER and sometimes grave? acute coronary syndromes, 1) unstable angina, 2) non STEMI, 3) STEMI because the plaque ruptured? unstable/thin cap
The 2 types of plaque can… be there in the same pt
Chronic stable angina predictable pattern of exertional chest pain- relieved by rest
Stable angina permanent narrowing, fixed lesion
Demand-related ischemia when you get angina/pain upon exertion because the heart is demanding more blood
demand-related ischemia Fixed Pattern, NO change w/respiration (pleuritic), NO change with body position, NO tenderness, Dull pain (compressing, squeezing, crushing), 15-30 minutes, Radiates to the jaw or left arm
Supply related ischemia less blood flow pain, unstable plaque, pain even at rest, prolonged pain not relieved by rest or meds, new onset pain
Can we get ischemia/infarction with no chest pain? yes> diabetic pts, women (SOB), elderly (SOB)
New pain at rest not chronic stable angina> acute coronary syndrome> ER
New pain, rest pain, prolonged pain, worst pain > listen to story> ER
How to dx chronic stable angina hx, exertional pain, EKG, stress EKG, ECHO (dobutamine), angiography, nuclear scanning
After an abnormal stress test, what’s the next step? angiography will localize the lesion
Can we have ischemic heart dz w/no obstruction, atherosclerosis, plaque, etc.? Yes> spasm >variant angina, or vasospastic> r/t calcium> young age (20s) > EKG changes during attack only
Tx for demand related ischemia beta blockers and calcium channel blockers
Supply related ischemia unstable plaque? pain is d/t less supply of blood to the heart d/t plaque becoming loose? s/s? new, worse, prolonged, rest pain- also at exertion.
Supply related ischemia significant obstruction> sub endocardium effected> ST segment does not show, troponin will be ^
Transmural infarction when 100% of the heart dies
If pt has chest pains, what do you do? EKG> if not elevated, do enzymes (nonSTEMI)
If EKG shows ST elevations, what do you do? send to the cath lab, no need for enzymes
EKG is doing what? taking pictures of the DIRECTION of the electricity in the heart. Leads are cameras. When electricity moving towards electrode, + EKG ^ST. When moving away, ST segment depressed.
Dead tissues have electricity? NO, and viable surrounding tissue will move towards dead tissue, away from camera/leads= depressed=nonSTEMI
When thickness of myocardium has died, which way will electricity move? towards the leads and cameras? ST elevation? transmural infarction
Unstable angina hx dx
Non STEMI enzyme dx
STEMI ST elevation/EKG, enzyme
Serum biomarkers troponin and CKMB both do not show up in the 1st 4 hrs so > myoglobin
If pt developed a 2nd heart attack, which biomarker will help? CKMB
MONA morphine, oxygen (if pt hypoxic), nitrates and ASA? only aspirin will decrease mortality by 25-40% (plt aggregation)
Angioplasty or thrombolytic, which is superior? Angio> if unavailable, do the TPA

Ch.9

Term Definition
political party an association of votes with broad common interests who want to influence or control decision making in government by electing the party's candidates
two-party system a system of government in which two parties compete for power
third party a party that challenges the two major parties
platform a series of statements expressing the party's principles, beliefs, and positions on election issues
plank each individual part of a political party's platform
national committee representatives from the 50 state party organizations who run a political party
caucus a meeting of political party members to conduct party business
precinct a geographic area that contains a specific number of voters
ward several adjoining precincts making up a larger election unit
political machine a strong party organization that can control political appointments and deliver votes
direct primary an election in which voters choose candidates to represent each party in a general election
closed primary an election in which only the declared members of a party are allowed to vote for that party's nominees
open primary an election in which voters need not declare their party preference to vote for the party's nominees
plurality the most votes among all those running for a political office
majority a number that is more than 50 percent of the total
petition a process by which candidates who are not affiliated with one of two major parties can get on the ballot for the general election in most states

ADV PRO Unit 3

Question Answer
Lateral: Nasal bones IOML lined up, CR 1/2" below nasion,, 3×3 coll, both laterals done R and L, In xray must have tip of nose to nasion and acantion. assess fx
PA waters: Nasal bones MML perp, OML 37 degree to IR, CR exits acanthion, tight coll. assess fx and septal deviations
deviated septum internal nasal deformity in the bone that separates the two nostrils. i.e. "crooked nose"
rhinolith calculus or stone in the nose (nasal stone)
PA caldwell: Nasal Bones OML perp, 15 degrees caudal exits nasion, tight coll. assess fx and septal deviations
mandible largest facial bone, only movable facial bone in skull, starts as 2 bones and forms 1 solid bone at 1 yo
alveolar processes arch containing alveoli for the roots of the teeth. Also on maxillary side. would point at root of teeth.
Do you do a true lateral 0 degrees for the mandible? No
PA mandible: for body AML perp (tell pt chin and nose against IR), CR exit lips ( closed jaw)
PA mandible: for Rami OML perp (tell pt forehead and nose against IR), CR exits acanthion,
What cassette size do you use for mandible? 8×10
How can you tell PA for rami vs PA for body? For rami= round jaw. For body= square jaw
What 2 ways can you do axiolateral oblique positions? 1. tube angled 25 degree cephalic OR 2. partial head drop (5-10 degree) with 20 degree tube angle. Point is to get a total of 25 degree angle.
Axiolateral: For ramus pt in true lateral position, CR 25 degree cephalic between mentum and gonion
Axiolateral oblique: for body from true lateral roll pt 30 degrees, CR 25 degrees cephalic between mentum and gonion
axiolateral oblique: For symphysis from true lateral roll pt 45 degrees, CR 25 degree cephalic between mentum and gonion
General survey for mandible= Axiolateral oblique from true lateral roll head 10-15 degrees, CR 25 degree cephalic between mentum and gonion. Both sides always done.
accurate positioning for the SMV is what line? IOML
What does SMV for mandible show? mandibular body, coronoid processes, condyloid processes
SMV: for mandible IOML parallel to IR, CR thru gonia, same positioning as sinuses
AP axial towne: mandible OML perp, CR 35 degree caudal thru arches (midway between EAM and gonia)= 3" above nasion, bottom tip of mandible not needed??
What is the towne for mandible demonstrating? TMJ fossae and condyle relationship
Panorex: mandible IOML perp (like in lateral), mouth closed tongue on roof of mouth, used for mandible fractures and TMJ evaluation, demonstrates teeth, mandible and TMJs
zygomatic arch is formed by zygomatic process (temporal bone) and temporal process (zygomatic bone).
zygomatic prominence positioning landmark, prominent portion of zygoma, "cheek bone"
Modified AP towne: zygomatic arches OML perp, CR 30 degree caudal enter glabella 1" above nasion thru arches. 8×10 CW, coll mandible and vertex not needed
If you cannot use OML use what line? and what angle for AP townes zygomatic arches? IOML 37 degree caudal
SMV: zygomatic arches IOML parallel to IR, CR 1" posterior to outer canthi at level of arches. angle cephalic if cannot get IOML
SMV criteria for arches mentum lined with frontal bone, arches symmetrical w/o foreshortening, no rotation, arches in profile. less penetration needed for arches??
Oblique axial/ tangential projection for arches From SMV position (IOML parallel) , Roll MSP 15 degree toward affected side and tilt vertex 15 degree away from affected side
PA waters for arches same as routine PA waters, MML perp CR thru arches ,collimated over zygoma, petrous portion below maxillary sinus
Is there a true lateral for TMJs? No
Which positions for TMJ do open and closed mouth? ALL of them
AP axial for TMJs OML perp, CR 35 degree caudal 3" above nasion. both open and closed.
Axiolateral projection: Shuller method for TMJ Head true lateral IOML lined up, CR 25-30 degree caudal to affected (dependent) TMJ and 1/2" anterior to EAM, coll 5×5 In xray the dependent TMJ is directly ABOVE the independent TMJ.
Axiolateral oblique projection: Law method for TMJ Start with head in true lateral IOML lined up, rotate head 15 degrees towards IR, CR 15 degree caudal to dependent TMJ and 1/2" anterior to EAM, coll 5×5. In xray dependent TMJ will make an "L" with independent TMJ.
2 circulatory systems lymphatic (minor) cardiovascular (major)
pulmonary circulation controlled by right side of heart. recieves and send deoxygenated blood to the lungs. "thinner" side.
systemic circulation controlled by left side of the heart. receivese and sends oxygen rich blood to tissues and organs. "thicker" side bc it works harder to pump to whole body.
coronary arteries classified as "end circulation"
What is the magic number of the heart? 4! chambers, valves and major blood vessels going into and leaving the heart
atrioventricular (tricuspid) valve In between atrium and ventrical on right side, blood can only go one way.
Pulmonary (semilunar) valve leaves the right ventrical to the lungs
Left atrium recieves blood from the lungs
mitral (bicuspid) valve in between left atrium and ventrical. prevents backflow
aortic valve leaves left ventrical to go to the body circulation
brachiocephalic artery has 3 branches RT= common carotid, subclavian, vertebral
common carotids are ___________ circulation anterior
vertebral arteries are _________________ circulation posterior
angiography examination of vessels
contrasts used in angiography positive, non-ionic contrast media
most commonly used injection technique Seldinger Technique! Know the steps!
What is a trocar? 3 edged medical device. has metal or plastic obturator tip, cannula and seal
venous needles inserted into vein are shorter in length, go down stream, dark red blood
arterial needles inserted into artery are longer in length, go up stream, bright red blood
introducer sheaths allow for multiple attachments
How to calculate size/diameter of catheter? use french gauge system. Divide the french number by 3.
Radionuclide MPI MPI=myocardial perfusion imaging. Non invasicce, do an exercise stress test, use Thallium contrast.
most common IV site for specials femoral artery
post catheterization procedure firm pressure to prevent bleeding at least 15-30 min and pt vitals monitored for 24 hours
most common cardiovascular disease Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
artherosclerosis stenosis (narrowing) o the coronary arteries
Right heart catheterization "venous access" measures everything on the right side of the heart (pressure and blood oxygen saturation, cardiac output). gets lodged in left pulmonary artery. use Swan ganz catheter or PAC
Left heart catheterization "arterial access" looks at the LT ventrical for dysfunction, disease or obstruction, goes through femoral artery, use pigtail catheter
Aortography accomplished by placing catheter at desired level of aorta
Interventional therapeutic (to relieve, correct, repair) plasty=repair
Diagnostic (to find and evaluate) graphy= to record, image to diagnose
Intravascular stent to open/reopen occluded vessel and keep it opened, to improve blood flow ex. stenosis.
Endovascular stent to hold arteries in place. strengthens/reinforces/repairs weak artery ex. aneurysm

geography

Term Definition
Location Tells you where it is
Place What is it like when you get there
movement people and ideas get around
human enviorment interaction What do the people do to the environment? What does the enviorment do for people
regions What do locations have in common?– Climate, religion, language, education, states are territories – borders of a nation
Hemisphere Half of a sphere [Earth is separated into north and south hemisphere and east and west hemisphere]
Latitude measures south and north and run from east and west– like the rungs of a ladder

Foynesfr La Nourritu Vocab-Food

Question Answer
l’agneau lamb
Le b?uf beef
le veau veal
Le poulet chicken
la dinde turkey
La viande hachee minced meat
une saucisse a sausage
Le saucisson salami
le jambon ham
Le lapin rabbit
le bifteck steak
Une cotelette a chop/cutlet
Les fruits de mer seafood
les moules mussels
Les crevettes prawns
un homard a lobster
Le saumon salmon
le poisson the fish
Les legumes vegetables
les petits pois peas
Les haricots verts green beans
le chou cabbage
Une pomme de terre a potato
le chou-fleur cauliflower
Un champignon a mushroom
l’ail garlic
Un poivron pepper
les frites chips
Les crudites selection of raw vegetables in a salad
Un avocat an advocado
un citron a lemon
Une raisin a grape
une cerise a cherry
Une poire a pear
une fraise a strawberry
Une framboise a raspberry
une pomme an apple
Une pamplemousse grapefruit
une banane a banana
Un ananas a pineapple
une peche a peach
Une noix de coca coconut
Farine flour
miel honey
Confiture jam
un ?uf an egg
Pain bread
beurre butter
Le sel salt
le poivre pepper
La creme cream
le potage soup
Crepe pancake
l’huile oil
Lait milk
jus juice
Eau water
vin wine
Des glacons ice cubes
eau potable drinking water
Gateau cake
glace icecream
Sucre sugar
des noix nuts
Des amandes almonds
Fromage cheese
fromage de chevre goat’s cheese
Le repas the meal
le plat the meal
Le petit dejeuner the breakfast
le dejeuner the lunch
Le diner the dinner
le gouter the snack
Un hors d’?uvre a starter
une entree a starter
Un plat principal a main course
un dessert a dessert
Un aperitif/ un apero a drink before dinner
une boisson a drink
L’addition the bill
un pourboire a tip
La viande the meat

Gastro

Question Answer
Pronouce the word " Cholecystalgia" KOH-lay-sis-Tal-jah
What does the Abbreviation "GERD" mean gastroesophageal reflux disease
What does the word "Anophony" mean sound from the anus
The root word "hepat/o" means Liver
The root word "enter/o" means intestines
What is the definition for the word "eupepsia" good digestion
What is the definition for the word "gastromalacia" softening of the stomach
What does the abbreviation " BM" mean bowel movement
What is the definition for the word "hepaticotomy" incision into the liver
Pronouce the word "jejunostomy" Je-joo-Naw-stoh-mee

Diagnostic tests

Question Answer
Complete blood count CBChematology Lavender invert 8-10x. RefrigerateAnemia
Hematology panel or profile HPHematology Lavender. Invert 8-10x. Refrigerate Anemia
Hematocrit HctHematology Lavender. Invert 8-10x. Refrigerate Anemia
Hemoglobin Hb or HgbHematology Lavender. Invert 8- 10x. Refrigerate Anemia
Prothrombin Time INRCoagulationLight blue. Invert genttly 3-4x. Spin. Refrigerate Clotting
Partial thromboplastin time PTT or (A)PTTCoagulatioLight blue. Invert 3-4x gently. Spin. Room tempClotting
Total Cholesterol (T) CholChemistryGold. Invert 5-6x sit for 30. Spin refrigerate Mint green. Invert 8-10x. Spin. Refrigerate Heart disease. Must be fasting 10hrs or 8hrs for pregnant women
High density lipoprotein HDLchemistryGold invert 5-6x sit for 30 spin refrgerate Mint green invert 8-10x spin refrigerateHeart disease
Low density lipoprotein LDLchemistry Gold. Invert 5-6x. Sit for 30. Spin. Refrigerate Mint green. Invert 8-10x. Spin. RefrigerateHeart disease
Macroscopic urine U/A or U. MacChemistry subsection urinalysis Clean cup from lab. Label first Physical and chemical properties of urine
Urine culture U/CMicrobiology Sterile container with absolute seal. Clean mid stream catchUrinary tract infection
Hepatitis B HBVCDCGold. Invert 5-6x. Sit for 30. Spin. Refrigerate Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C HCVCDCGold. Invert 5-6x. Sit for 30. Spin. Refrigerate Hepatitis C
ABO Type and Screen T and STML7ml lavender invert 8-10x. Refrigerate Pregnant or transfusion
Biopsy Bx plus the location APSterile container with preservative Abnormal cells

Stack #2621937

Question Answer
Copperheads In the 1860s, the Copperheads comprised a vocal faction of Democrats in the Northern United States of the Union who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates.
Emancipation Proclamation The Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863.
Total War The American-English Dictionary defines total war as "war that is unrestricted in terms of the weapons used, the territory or combatants involved, or the objectives pursued, especially one in which the laws of war are disregarded."
War of Attrition Attrition warfare is a military strategy consisting of belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and material.
Amnesty An official pardon for people who have been convicted of political offenses.
Black Codes In the United States, the Black Codes were laws passed by Democrat-controlled Southern states in 1865 and 1866, after the Civil War.
Carpetbaggers Whites and African Americans eager to participate in the state conventions increased among many white southerners.
Sharecroppers A form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land.
Compromise of 1877 The Compromise of 1877 was a purported informal, unwritten deal that settled the intensely disputed 1876 U.S. presidential election.
Reconstruction Acts The Reconstruction Acts of 1867 laid out the process for readmitting Southern states into the Union.
What killed more soldiers in the civil war than battle? Nearly as many men died in captivity during the Civil War as were killed in the whole of the Vietnam War.
What is the Anaconda Plan? The Anaconda Plan is the name applied to a U.S. Union Army outline strategy for suppressing the Confederacy at the beginning of the American Civil War.
What were Northerners called who sympathized with the South called? They were called Copperheads and they included sitting members of congress at the time who were Democrats.
What were the Jim Crow Laws? Jim Crow law, in U.S. history, any of the laws that enforced racial segregation in the South between the end of Reconstruction in 1877 and the beginning of the civil rights movement in the 1950s.
What is the Crittenden Compromise? The Crittenden Compromise was an unsuccessful proposal introduced by United States Senator John J. Crittenden
What was the outcome of Plessy v Ferguson? It upheld state racial segregation laws for public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal".
Who were the South relying on to help in the Civil War? ( 2 Countries in Europe) Britain and France
Who led the South in the Battle of Shiloh? General Albert Sidney Johnson.
What kind of ruler was George McClellan? (Reluctant or Brave) Brave
What year did Congress allow African Americans to fight in the War? 1864
What stated that any slave living in a rebelling state was free?
What was the 54th Massachusetts Infantry? The 54th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment that saw extensive service in the Union Army during the American Civil War.
Where did the South surrender? Appomatox
What is Reconstruction? The term Reconstruction Era, in the context of the history of the United States, has two senses: the first covers the complete history of the entire country from 1865 to 1877
Who Killed Abraham Lincoln? John Booth
What did the 13th Amendment do? Passed by Congress on January 31, 1865, and ratified on December 6, 1865, the 13th amendment abolished slavery in the United States.

dust bowl

Question Answer
what is the dust bowl The dust bowl is considered to be one of the worst man made ecological disster ever. farms and ahomes wer plaagued with dus particles
what daid the great depression result in the graeat depresion resulted in an increase of emigration of people – some immigrans went back to their native country
what are okies Many farmers decided to pack up and leave their drought stricken farms and move west to California hoping for a new start. So many of the migrants were from Oklahoma they soon became known as “Okies”.
when did president roosevelt become president roosevelt became president after the election of 1932
what was the new deals goal the new deals goal was short term relief and immediate recovery
what is FDR long rage goal FDR long range goal of permnanaent recovery and the reform of instuitional abaauses adnd practices
what are the alphabaet agency the alphabet agencies were signalaing the intent for the godvernment to qintervene q
the civilian conservation corps sent unmarriqed men and young men intoo the feildq to plant trees, build parks, rooads and fight sodil erosion
what is the securities exchange commission the ecurities exchange commission is an agencay that protects public and private investors from st market fraud
what is the agriculturla adjustmenqt aact paid farmers fqor not planwting criops
what is the teqnnasse valley authority- econoic development of teqh e tenneasse river water shed
the social secaurity act fund for retired people an unemployment insurance system for deendent mothers, children, and dphisically diabled
what is relief Relief: assistance given to those in a special need or difficulty
what is recovery Recovery: Designed to help entities get back on their feet.
what is refoorm : put into place to change things for the better
what is defecsit spending whend a governmet spends dmore money than they make
what did huey long believe in huey long beliveve d n sharing our wealth anc creatte hare our weath profgrams
what did father charles coaughlin belive in opposed dFDR becuse he thougt he was to eazy on bankers
what is the fedral reserve the us cendtral bank
what doaes the ferearl ereserve regulate american ecoanomy
what did most latinos due most latinos worked low wage jobs
whay did the great depression hit latinos the most first fired, and lasta hired
what did the new deal programs deny dened giving latinos beqnefits and jobs claiming they were not citixzens
what wer mexican americns denied access to many mexican americans were denied access to school or service at hospitals
what was the national labor relations act gauranteed the right fpr workers to gaurantee workersb to creete union and bargain collectivley
what are unions NAACP supported striking whit union workers