science saxton 6 Chapter 2 Energy and energy resources

Term Definition
mass the amount of matter an object has
energy the ability to cause change
kinetic energy the energy an object has because of its motion
potential energy the stored energy in an object because of it's position
thermal energy energy that increases as temperature increases
chemical energy energy stored in chemical bonds
electrical energy energy carried by an electric current (batteries or outlets)
nuclear energy energy in the nucleus of an atom
transformation a change in your environment
law of conservation of energy energy is never created or destroyed.
generator device that turns kinetic energy into electrical energy
turbine steam powered fan blades that spins a generator at a power plant
nonrenewable resource energy source that is used up faster than it can be replaced
renewable resource energy resource that is replaced continually
alternative resource new renewable or inexhaustible energy source
inexhaustible resource energy resource that cannot be used up by humans
photovaltaic transforms radiant energy into electrical energy
resources materials provided by the Earth for humans to use

Physics Light & EM

Question Answer
What happens if sound waves cross the boundary at an agle of 90 degrees? They carry on straight
All angles are measured between light rays and the …… Normal
How is infrared used in astronomy? The universe contains vast amount of dust and infrared telescopes can peer into the hearts of dusty galaxies
What is refraction? Refraction is the change in speed when light rays travel from one medium to another which can lead to a change in direction
What is the focal point? The point in which the light rays meet
Describe how microwaves are used in radar systems Radar works by transmitting a beam of microwaves, detecting the signals reflected back from objects in the path of the beam
What does a convex lens do to light rays? Brings them together to a point
State a practical use of UV radiation Steralizing work places
How do you calculate lambda? v/f
Give 3 examples of communication systems that use microwaves mobile phones, satellite tv and wifi and bluetooth
How do physiotherapists use infrared radiation? They heat damaged tissues to help them heal quicker
How does sun tan lotion work? It absorbs the shorter wavelength UV rays that cause sunburn and allow the longer waves to reach the skin creating a tan
How can you protect yourself from the harmful rays of the sun? Sun-tan lotion
Why is too much exposure to UV rays bad for your health? It can cause skin to burn and become painful
Why is UV radiation needed by the body? To produce Vitamin D3, which allows calcium to be absorbed from our food
Name the EM spectrum
Give an examople of the use of infrared images of earth from space These images can provide an early warning for El Nino events and helo to prevent potential storms
What is a periscope used for? Seeing around or over objects
What happens to parallel rays of light when they strike a concave mirror? The rays will reflect inwards towards a focal point
What happens to parallel rays of light when they strike a convex mirror? The rays will travel directly away from an imaginary focal point
How does the focal length of the lens affect the image that is formed by the lens? The smaller the focal length the smaller the image
What is a lens? A lens is an optical device which refracts light
Describe how radio waves can be produced Naturally occuring radio waves can be produced by lightening. Unntatural radio waves are produced by radio transmitters
How are radio waves? The size of buildings or people
How big are gamma rays? The size of atomic nuclei
What does the whole EM spectrum have in common? Travel at the speed of light
What is a medical use of radio waves Radio waves can produced 3D images of the bodys organs and structures
Give two uses for Xrays Can take images of bones and other body parts such as the brain or lungs
Describe how X-Rays work X-rays are directed at the object to be imaged and some of the Xrays are absorbed as they pass through and then hit a photographic plate on the other side of the object to blacken it
Describe what happens when X-Rays strike a photographic film They are absorbed through the body except where they are absorbed by dense structures like bone
What is a natural source of Gamma Rays Gamma decay
What is irradiation? The process in which an object is exposed to radiation
What type of waves are light waves? Transverse
Give one example of how sound waves are different to light waves? Light waves can travel through a vaccum
What does laterally inverted mean? Letters and words look like they have been written backwards
How does light travel? In straight lines
What is the law of reflection? The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection
What happens when light passes from a fast medium to a slow medium ? It bends towards the normal
What happens when light passes from a slow medium to a fast medium? It bends away from the normal
Give 3 examples where lenses are used Microscopes, cameras, telescopes, projectors
How can the focal length of a concave lens be measured be measured? Placing a lens in front of a screen and moving the lens until a sharp image of a distant object is obtained on the screen, then measuring the distance from the lens to the screen (this is the focal legnth)
How can you correct short sight? A concave lens to spread the rays of light out before they enter the eye
How can you correct long sight? A convex lens to bring the light rays together before entering the eye
What are prisms used for and how does this work? To seperate white light into the spectrum of visible light – ROYGBIV. This works because different wavelegnths of light are refracted by slightly different amounts
What is the electromagnetic spectrum? An oscillation of electrical and magnetic fields that travel through space as a wave and carries energy
How is the electromagnetic spectrum split up? according to its wavelegnth ( or frequency)
How can you detect radio waves? Aerial
How can you detect microwaves? Aerial
How can you detect infrared? thermochromic film
How can you detect visible light? Photographic film
HOw can you detect ultraviolet? Fluorescent chemicals
how can you detect x rays? Photographic film
How can you detect gamma rays? Photographic film
How is ultraviolet radiation used in forensics? For looking at fingerprints
What happens to the focal legnth when you increase the thickness of the lens ? The focal length decreases
What is the scientific word for short and long sighted? Short – myopia . Long – hypermetropia
If you were to put a convex lens in front of a window and a screen behind the lens to produce an image of the window, what 3 things would you notice about this window? Upside down, smaller, back to front
When is the angle of refraction greater than the angle of incidence ? When light leaves a medium as it is bent away from the normal
What is the angle of incidence? The angle between the incident ray and the normal
Which colour is refracted the least and why? Red because the short the wavelegnth of the light, the more it is refracted
What does medium mean? Another word fo material
What is light ? An electromagnetic wave that is visible to the human eye
What is a converging and diversion lens Convex and concave (in order )
What can a short sighted person see Short sighted people can see objects clearly in front of them but struggle to see objects from far awag
What two surfaces are great at absorbing and reflecting infrared radiation? Black and shiny surfaces
What materials can microwaves pass through? Plastic and glass
Why can microwaves not travel through metals? Because metals reflect microwaves
Out of UV A, B and C, which has the higher frequency? UV C
What is the most dangerous type of UV radiation? UV C
What two types of waves make an Amplitude Modulation Wave Audio Signal and Carrier Wave
What are transverse waves? Transverse waves are where the vibrations are at right angles to the direction of travel
What are longitudinal waves? Where the vibrations are in the same direction to the direction of travel
What is amplitude modulation? A technique used to transmit sound information via radio waves
Why are CAT scanners now used instead of X-Rays more? Because they produce much more data and detail
What safety precausions are made when using X rays? Not only are patients limited to the amount of X rays they are allowed to have but hospital staff must wait outside a room with a shielded lead infused wall for max protection
What is diffraction? The bending of waves around obsticles and openings
What is the focal legnth? The distance between the lens and the image sensor when the subject is in focus

Stack #2621730

Question Answer
organism an individual animal, plant, or single-celled life form
interact to act in a way that affects others
enviroment the surroundings in which an organism lives
complex complicated; having many different and connected parts
evidence Evidence is made up of detailed, measurable observations a scientist makes during an experiment
experiment An experiment is a test to see if a hypothesis is right or wrong
skeptical to have doubts; to keep questioning

Kinesiology Knee, ankle, and foot

Question Answer
What type of joint is the Tibiofibular joint – Plane
What type of joint is the tiobiofemoral joint and how many degrees of freedom does it have – Pivot – 2
What is the ROM values for the knee – Flex is -5-140- IR is 0-15- ER is 0-30
T or F, As the knee nears full extension the knee ER about 10-15 deg – True
What is the normal angle of inclination of the knee or normal Genu valgum – 170-175
What is the angle of genu Valgum – less than 170- knocked knee
What is the angle of the genu Varum – greater than 180- Bow legged
What are the 6 supporting structures of the knee – ACL- PCL- MCL- LCL- Posterior capsule- Medial and lateral meniscus
What is the main purpose of the meniscus – Acts as a shock absorber – Reduces pressure
What is the Q angle and what is normal – Overall line of force of the quads relative to the knee- 15deg
What are the 4 knee extensors – Rectus femoris- Vastus lateralis- Vastus intermedius- Vastus medialis
What are the 8 knee flexors – Semimembranosus- Semitendinosus- Biceps femoris- Gracilis- Sartorius- Gastrocnemius- Plantaris- Popliteus
What are the 5 IR of the knee – Semimebranosus- Semitendinosus- Gracilis- Sartorius- Popliteus
What are the 2 ER of the knee – Biceps femoris long and short head
What are the 5 clinical conditions of the knee – Osgood-schlatter disease- Ligamentous injury- terrible triad- TKR- Extensor lag
What are the 5 tarsal bones – Talus- Calcaneus- Navicular- Cuboid- Medial, intermediate, and lateral Cuneiforms
Describe flat foot – Pronation- Eversion, Abd, dorsiflexion
Describe High Arch – Supination- Inversion, Add, and plantar flexion
What are the 3 proximal and 3 distal joints of the foot and ankle – Proximal is Talocrural, Subtalar, Transverse tarsal – Distal is Tarsometatarsal, Metatarsalphalngeal, Interphalangeal
What is the ankle mortise – Joint between the trochlea dome of talus and distal tibia
What are the 4 main supporting strucutres of the talocrural joint – Interosseous membrane- Ant and post tibiofibial ligaments- Deltoid ligaments- LCL
What makes up the subtalr joint – Talus and calcaneus
What are the 3 arches of the foot – Medial longitudinal arch- Lateral longitudinal arch – Transverse arch
What are the 4 anterior compartment muscles of the foot and ankle – Tibialis anterior- Extensor digitorum longus- Extensor halluces longus- Perpneus tertius
What are the 2 lateral compartment muscles of the ankle and the foot – Peroneus longus and brevis
What are the 3 superficial and 3 deep posterior compartment muscles of the ankle and the foot – Superficial are Gastrocnemius, Soleus, Plantaris- Deep are Tibialis posterior, Flexors digitorum longus, Flexor halluces longus
What are the 3 muscle that make up the FIRST layer of the intrinsic foot muscles – Flexor digitorum brevis- Abductor hallicus- Abductor digiti minimi
What are the 2 muscle that make up the SECOND layer of the intrinsic foot muscles – Quadratus plantae- Four Lumbricals
What are the 3 muscle that make up the THIRD layer of the intrinsic foot muscles – Adductor hallucis- Flexor hallucis brevis- Flexor digit minimi
What are the 2 muscle that make up the FOURTH layer of the intrinsic foot muscles – Dorsal interossei- Plantar interossei
The soleus does what – Standing or controlling postural sway
The gastrocnemius is more for – Fast twitch muscles
The Plantar flexors function as what type of lever – Second class
What are the 7 clinical conditions of the ankle and foot – Shin splints (MTSS)- Ankel sprain- Ankle dislocation- Achilles tendonitis- Plantar fasciitis- Drop foot- Pes Cavus
What are the 8 clinical conditions of the foot and toes – Hallux valgus- Hallux rigidus- Hammer toe- Mallet toe- Claw toe- Metatarsalgia- Mortons neuroma- Turf toe

chapter 1

Term Definition
Organism an individual animal, plant, or single-celled life form
Interact to act in a way that affects others
Environment the surroundings in which an organism lives
Complex complicated
Evidence evidence is made up of detailed, measurable observations a scientist makes during an experiment
Experiment an experiment is a test to see if a hypothesis is right or wrong
Skeptical to have doubts

A109 Basic Nav

Question Answer passes throughGreenwich, England, is used as the zero line from which measurements aremade in degrees east (E) and west (W) to 180? prime meridian parallels = and meridians = long, lat 39, 77 degrees = 39 north 77 W where longitudinal meridians converge true north attracts the needle of a compass magnetic north Points where magnetic north and true north are the same agonic line earth revolves at a rate of 15 degrees per hour in MST Zulu time is ______ hrs ahead 7 compass course = magnetic course +/- deviation cruising altitudes above 3,000 AGL with respect to magnetic course 0-179 odd thousands plus 500ft ex: 3,500, and 180-359 fly even thousands + 500ft ex: 6,500 for navigation purposes pilot needs to know (7) Starting point (point of departure)Ending point (final destination)Distance to travelWindAircraft speedAircraft fuel capacity/ burn rateAircraft load (people and equipment computations of direction and distance from a known position. dead reckoning navigation by reference to visible landmarks pilotage dead reckoning is navigation using (4) time, distances, directions, speed sectional aeronautical chart scale = 1:500,000, 1inch = 6.86 nm terminal area charts scale= 1:250,000, 1 inch = 3.43 nm terminal area charts are helpful when within vicinity of class B airspace shaded areas show depictions of what might be on ground if sun is in? northwest color tints range for showing elevation brown is highest and light green is lowest max elevation figure is needed for structures above ____ ft tall 200 ft Almost all flights utilize radio navigation equipment as primary or secondary nav aid 2 primary radio systems for VFR nav VOR and GPS how many sats are in constellation and how many does an indy receiver use at one time? 24 and 4 ** GPS consists of 3 segments ** space segment- network of satellites, user segment- the receiver, control segment- people monitoring satellites and making corrections

Stack #2623257

Question Answer
organism an individual animal, plant, or single-celled life form
interact to act in a way that affects others
enviroment the surroundings in which an organism lives
complex complicated; having many different and connected parts
evidence Evidence is made up of detailed, measurable observations a scientist makes during an experiment.
experiment An experiment is a test to see if a hypothesis is right or wrong.
skepical to have doubts; to keep questioning


Term Definition
ethical relating to moral principles or the branch of knowledge dealing with these.
facilitate make (an action or process) easy or easier.
impede delay or prevent (someone or something) by obstructing them; hinder.
scrutiny critical observation or examination.
salvaging rescue (a wrecked or disabled ship or its cargo) from loss at sea.
syndicated control or manage by a syndicate.
philanthropist a person who seeks to promote the welfare of others, especially by the generous donation of money to good causes.
bias prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.
objective (of a person or their judgment) not influenced by personal feelings or opinions in considering and representing facts.
eclectic deriving ideas, style, or taste from a broad and diverse range of sources.
dilapidated (of a building or object) in a state of disrepair or ruin as a result of age or neglect.
capital the most important city or town of a country or region, usually its seat of government and administrative center.
intertwined twist or twine together.
impeccably in accordance with the highest standards; faultlessly.
sidetracked cause (someone) to be distracted from an immediate or important issue.
sustainable able to be maintained at a certain rate or level.
pertinent relevant or applicable to a particular matter; apposite.
recession a period of temporary economic decline during which trade and industrial activity are reduced, generally identified by a fall in GDP in two successive quarters.
aspirational having or characterized by aspirations to achieve social prestige and material success.
perishability used in marketing to describe the way in which service capacity cannot be stored for sale in the future. It is a key concept of services marketing. Other key characteristics of services include intangibility, inseparability and variability.

Inside the Earth

Term Definition
Crust The outermost layer of the Earth
Oceanic Crust
Continental Crust
Mantle The layer of the Earth between the crust and the core
Lithosphere The outermost, rigid layer of the Earth
Asthenosphere Plastic layer of the mantle on which pieces of the Lithosphere move
Thinner and denser than continental crust
Thicker and less dense than the oceanic crust
Strong, lower part of the mantle
Inner Core Solid, dense center of the Earth
Outer Core Liquid layer of the Eartha??s Core
Core 33% of Eartha??s mass split into parts and is the densest most inner layer

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